Publications

30

Aug, 2012

A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir during pregnancy and post-partum

 

Authors: Colbers A, Taylor G, Moltó J, Ivanovic J, Wyen C, Schwarze-Zander C, Weizsäcker K, Gingelmaier A, Hawkins D, Sadiq T, Kabamba K, Burger D; on behalf of the PANNA network

Published: 13th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV Therapy, 2012 April 16th-18th, Barcelona

 

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30

Aug, 2012

A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of darunavir, atazanavir and ritonavir during pregnancy and post-partum

 

Authors: Colbers A, Moltó J, Ivanovic J, Hidalgo-Tenori C, Weizsäcker K, van der Ende I, Hawkins D, Taylor G, Sadiq T,  Burger D; on behalf of the PANNA network

Published: 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, March 5th-8th 2012, Seattle. P_103

 

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28

Aug, 2012

Insufficient antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Europe

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Authors: European Collaborative Study in Eurocord

Published in: Antivir Ther, 2011,16: 859-903.

Background: Although mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates are at an all-time low in Western Europe, potentially preventable transmissions continue to occur. Duration of antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is strongly associated with MTCT risk.

Methods: Data on pregnant HIV-infected women enrolled in the Western and Central European sites of the European Collaborative Study between January 2000 and July 2009 were analysed. The proportion of women receiving no antenatal ART or 1-13 days of treatment was investigated, and associated factors explored using logistic regression models.

Results: Of 2148 women, 142 (7%) received no antenatal ART, decreasing from 8% in 2000-03 to 5% in 2004-09 (χ2 =8.73, p<0.01). A further 41 (2%) received 1-13 days of ART. A third (64/171) of women with “insufficient” (no or 1-13 days) antenatal ART had a late HIV diagnosis (in the third trimester or intrapartum), but half (85/171) were diagnosed pre-conception. Preterm delivery <34 weeks was associated with receipt of no and 1-13 days antenatal ART (AOR 2.9 p<0.01 and AOR 4.5 p<0.01 respectively). Injecting drug use history was associated with an increased risk of no ART (AOR 2.9 p<0.01) and severe symptomatic HIV disease with a decreased risk (AOR 0.2, p<0.01). MTCT rates were 1.1% (15/1318) among women with ≥14 days antenatal ART and 7.4% (10/136) among those with insufficient ART.

Conclusions: Over the last 10 years, around 1 in 11 women in this study received insufficient antenatal ART, accounting for 40% of mother-to-child transmissions. Half of these women were diagnosed pre-conception, suggesting disengagement from care.

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19

Jul, 2012

Pharmacokinetics of 100/25 mg lopinavir/ritonavir tablets in children when dosed twice daily according to FDA weight bands.

 

Authors: Bastiaans DET, Forcat S, Lyall HEG, Cressey TR, Chalermpantmetagul S, Saïdi Y, Noguera T, Fortuny C, Compagnucci A, Bleier J, Giaquinto C, Colbers EP, Burger DM.

Published in: 4th International Workshop on HIV pediatrics 2012. July 20-21, 2012. L’Enfant Plaza Hotel, Washington DC, USA. 4th International Workshop on HIV pediatrics. July 20-21, 2012. L’Enfant Plaza Hotel, Washington DC, USA.

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8

May, 2012

Neurocognitive and Quality of Life Outcomes in Children after Planned Treatment Interruptions: the randomized PENTA 11 trial.

 

Authors: Ramos J., Melvin D, Medin G, Compagnucci A, Bleier J, Boscolo V, Barclay L, Ory S, Giaquinto C, Gibb D. on behalf of the PENTA Steering Committee.

Published in: 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, San Francisco, 5-8 March 2012, Poster

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19

Apr, 2012

Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. Update 2011

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Authors: Antinori A., Marcotullio S., Ammassari A., Andreoni M., Angarano G., Armignacco O., Carosi G., Cinque P., d’Arminio Monforte A., Di Perri G., Ensoli B., Florida M., Galli M., Mastroianni C., Matteelli A., Mazzotta F., Moroni M., Pal G., Puoti M., Puro V., Rizzardini G., Sagnelli E., Vella S., Vullo V., Lazzarin A., Italian HIV Guidelines Working Group (Giaquinto C.  member of Study Group)

Published inNew Microbiol 2012, 35: 113 – 59

Abstract: This short version complies with the intention expressed in the methodological introduction to the full text Italian Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral drugs and the diagnostic-clinical management of people with HIV-1 infection. By definition, this version should not be considered completely exhaustive with respect to the full text version of the Guidelines available at the website: http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pubblicazioni_1301_allegato.pdf.

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19

Apr, 2012

Phylodynamic and Phylogeographic Patterns of the HIV-1 Subtype F1 Parenteral Epidemic in Romania.

 

Authors: Mbisa JL, Hue S, Buckton AJ, et al.

Published in: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28(9):1161-1166

Abstract In the late 1980s an HIV-1 epidemic emerged in Romania that was dominated by subtype F1. The main route of infection is believed to be parenteral transmission in children. We sequenced partial pol coding regions of 70 subtype F1 samples from children and adolescents from the PENTA-EPPICC network of which 67 were from Romania. Phylogenetic reconstruction using the sequences and other publically available global subtype F sequences showed that 79% of Romanian F1 sequences formed a statistically robust monophyletic cluster. The monophyletic cluster was epidemiologically linked to parenteral transmission in children. Coalescent-based analysis dated the origins of the parenteral epidemic to 1983 [1981–1987; 95% HPD]. The analysis also shows that the epidemic’s effective population size has remained fairly constant since the early 1990s suggesting limited onward spread of the virus within the population. Furthermore, phylogeographic analysis suggests that the root location of the parenteral epidemic was Bucharest.

 

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19

Apr, 2012

Pharmacokinetics of 100/25 mg lopinavir/ritonavir tablets in children when dosed twice daily according to FDA weightbands.

 

Authors: D Bastiaans, S. Forcat, H.E.G. Lyall, T.R. Cressey, S. Chalermpantmetagul, Y. Saïdi, H.J. Scherpbier, A. Warris, A. Compagnucci, C. Giaquinto, E.P. Colbers, D.M. Burger on behalf of PENTA KONCERT Study Group.

Published in: 6th Netherlands Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment. November 27, 2012. 

4

Apr, 2012

Antiretroviral use in Italian children with perinatal HIV infection over a 14 – year period

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Authors:  Chiappini E., Galli L., Tovo P.A., Gabiano C., Lisi C., Giacomet V., Bernardi S., Esposito S., Rosso R., Giaquinto C ., Badolato R., Guarino A., Maccabruni A., Masi M., Cellini M., Salvini F., Di Bari C., Dedoni M., Dodi I., De Martino M for the Italian Register for HIV infection in children

Published in: Acta Paediatr, 2012, 101: 287-295

Background:  Information on the use of new antiretroviral drugs in children in the real setting of clinical fields is largely unknown.

Methods:  Data from 2554 combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens administered to 911 children enrolled in the Italian Register for HIV infection in children, between 1996 and 2009, were analysed. Factors potentially associated with undetectable viral load and immunological response to cART were explored by Cox regression analysis.

Results:  Proportion of protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens significantly decreased from 88.0% to 51.2% and 54.9%, while proportion on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens increased from 4.5% to 38.8% and 40.2% in 1996–1999, 2000–2004 and 2005–2009, respectively (p < 0.0001). Significant change in the use of each antiretroviral drug occurred over the time periods (p < 0.0001). Factors independently associated with virological and immunological success were as follows: later calendar periods, younger age at regimen (only for virological success) and higher CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage at baseline. Use of unboosted PI was associated with lower adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of virological or immunological success with respect to NNRTI- and boosted PI-based regimens, with no difference among these two latter types.

Conclusion:  Use of new generation antiretroviral drugs in Italian HIV-infected children is increasing. No different viro-immunological outcomes between NNRTI- and boosted PI-based cART were observed.

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19

Mar, 2012

Body Fat Abnormality in HIV-infected children and adoloscents living in Europe: prevalence and risk factors

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Authors: Alam N., Cortina – Borja M., Goetghebuer T., et al. European Paediatr HIV & Lipodystrop (Giaquinto C.  member of the Study Group)

Published in: JAIDS, 2012, 59: 314 – 32

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of and identify risk factors for lipodystrophy syndrome (LS) and body fat abnormality in a population of HIV-infected children and adolescents.

Design: Cross-sectional observational study.

Methods: HIV-infected subjects aged 2-18 years were recruited from 15 HIV centers in Belgium, Italy, and Poland between January 2007 and December 2008. Standardized assessments by the patient’s long-term clinician were performed to establish the presence of abnormality. Risk factors were explored in logistic regression models for fat abnormality outcomes and LS (abnormality plus dyslipidemia).

Results: Among 426 subjects (70% white), median age was 12.2 years (interquartile range: 9.0-15.0 years) and median duration of antiretroviral therapy was 5.2 years (interquartile range: 2.2-8.8 years). Prevalence was 57% (n = 235) for LS and 42% (n = 176) for fat abnormality; 90 subjects with abnormality were affected in ≥3 locations. Lipoatrophy occurred in 28% (n = 117) of subjects and lipohypertrophy in 27% (n = 115), most commonly in the face and trunk, respectively. In multivariable analysis, white ethnicity, body mass index, ritonavir/lopinavir, and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were each associated with an increased risk of LS (P < 0.05). White ethnicity, history of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined disease, and stavudine were associated with risk of lipoatrophy (P < 0.05). Increased risk of lipohypertrophy was associated with body mass index and prior HIV disease.

Conclusions: Fat abnormality was prevalent in close to half of children and adolescents, who had accumulated long treatment durations. Risk of fat abnormality was associated with specific drugs, including stavudine and ritonavir, and other variables. Our results underline the importance of continued surveillance of children treated with antiretroviral therapy.

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