Nov, 2016

Tuberculosis in HIV-infected children in Europe, Thailand and Brazil: paediatric TB-HIV EuroCoord study


Authors: Turkova A, Chappell E, Chalermpantmetagul S, et al.

Published in: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2016;20(11):1448-1456.

Setting Centres participating in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA), including Thailand and Brazil.

Objective To describe the incidence, presentation, treatment and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children.

Design Observational study of TB diagnosed in HIV-infected children in 2011–2013.

Results Of 4265 children aged <16 years, 127 (3%) were diagnosed with TB: 6 (5%) in Western Europe, 80 (63%) in Eastern Europe, 27 (21%) in Thailand and 14 (11%) in Brazil, with estimated TB incidence rates of respectively 239, 982, 1633 and 2551 per 100 000 person-years (py). The majority (94%) had acquired HIV perinatally. The median age at TB diagnosis was 6.8 years (interquartile range 3.0–11.5). Over half (52%) had advanced/severe World Health Organization stage immunodeficiency; 67 (53%) were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at TB diagnosis. Preventive anti-tuberculosis treatment was given to 23% (n = 23) of 102 children diagnosed with HIV before TB. Eleven children had unfavourable TB outcomes: 4 died, 5 did not complete treatment, 1 had recurrent TB and 1 had an unknown outcome. In univariable analysis, previous diagnosis of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome, not being virologically suppressed on ART at TB diagnosis and region (Brazil) were significantly associated with unfavourable TB outcomes.

Conclusion Most TB cases were from countries with high TB prevalence. The majority (91%) had favourable outcomes. Universal ART and TB prophylaxis may reduce missed opportunities for TB prevention.



Nov, 2016

Prevalence and effect of pre-treatment drug resistance on the virological response to antiretroviral treatment initiated in HIV-infected children – a EuroCoord-CHAIN-EPPICC joint project.


Authors: Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Wittkop L, Judd A, et al. For EuroCoord-CHAIN-EPPICC joint project study group.

Published in: BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):654.

Background Few studies have evaluated the impact of pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) on response to combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in children. The objective of this joint EuroCoord-CHAIN-EPPICC/PENTA project was to assess the prevalence of PDR mutations and their association with virological outcome in the first year of cART in children.

Methods HIV-infected children <18 years initiating cART between 1998 and 2008 were included if having at least one genotypic resistance test prior to cART initiation. We used the World Health Organization 2009 resistance mutation list and Stanford algorithm to infer resistance to prescribed drugs. Time to virological failure (VF) was defined as the first of two consecutive HIV-RNA > 500 copies/mL after 6 months cART and was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. All models were adjusted for baseline demographic, clinical, immunology and virology characteristics and calendar period of cART start and initial cART regimen.

Results Of 476 children, 88 % were vertically infected. At cART initiation, median (interquartile range) age was 6.6 years (2.1–10.1), CD4 cell count 297 cells/mm3(98–639), and HIV-RNA 5.2 log10copies/mL (4.7–5.7). Of 37 children (7.8 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 5.5–10.6) harboring a virus with ≥1 PDR mutations, 30 children had a virus resistant to ≥1 of the prescribed drugs. Overall, the cumulative Kaplan-Meier estimate for virological failure was 19.8 % (95 %CI, 16.4–23.9). Cumulative risk for VF tended to be higher among children harboring a virus with PDR and resistant to ≥1 drug prescribed than among those receiving fully active cART: 32.1 % (17.2–54.8) versus 19.4 % (15.9–23.6) (P = 0.095). In multivariable analysis, age was associated with a higher risk of VF with a 12 % reduced risk per additional year (HR 0.88; 95 %CI, 0.82–0.95; P < 0.001).

Conclusions PDR was not significantly associated with a higher risk of VF in children in the first year of cART. The risk of VF decreased by 12 % per additional year at treatment initiation which may be due to fading of PDR mutations over time. Lack of appropriate formulations, in particular for the younger age group, may be an important determinant of virological failure.



Apr, 2016

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)- type 2 co-infection among HIVpositive women in Ukraine, but no increased HIV mother-to-child transmission risk


Authors: Aebi-Popp K, Bailey H, Malyuta R, Volokha A, Thorne C. Ukraine European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord.

Published in: BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;27;16:94

Background Over 3500 HIV-positive women give birth annually in Ukraine, a setting with high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections. Herpes simplex virus Type 2 (HSV-2) co-infection may increase HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk. We explored factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, and its impact on HIV MTCT.

Methods Data on 1513 HIV-positive women enrolled in the Ukraine European Collaborative Study from 2007 to 2012 were analysed. Poisson and logistic regression models respectively were fit to investigate factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity and HIV MTCT.

Results Median maternal age was 27 years (IQR 24–31), 53 % (796/1513) had been diagnosed with HIV during their most recent pregnancy and 20 % had a history of injecting drugs. Median antenatal CD4 count was 430 cells/mm3 (IQR 290–580). Ninety-six percent had received antiretroviral therapy antenatally. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 68 % (1026/1513). In adjusted analyses, factors associated with HSV-2 antibodies were history of pregnancy termination (APR 1.30 (95 % CI 1.18–1.43) for ≥2 vs. 0), having an HIV-positive partner (APR 1.15 (95 % CI 1.05–1.26) vs partner’s HIV status unknown) and HCV seropositivity (APR 1.23 (95 % CI 1.13–1.35)). The overall HIV MTCT rate was 2.80 % (95 % CI 1.98–3.84); no increased HIV MTCT risk was detected among HSV-2 seropositive women after adjusting for known risk factors (AOR 1.43 (95 % CI 0.54–3.77).

Conclusion No increased risk of HIV MTCT was detected among the 68 % of HIV-positive women with antibodies to HSV-2, in this population with an overall HIV MTCT rate of 2.8 %. Markers of ongoing sexual risk among HIV-positive HSV-2 seronegative women indicate the importance of interventions to prevent primary HSV-2 infection during pregnancy in this high-risk group.



Mar, 2016

Children and young people with perinatal HIV in Europe: epidemiological situation in 2014 and implications for the future


Authors: Writing group for the Kids to Adults Working Group and Data Management and Harmonisation Group in EuroCoord.

Published inEuro Surveill.2016;21(10): 30162

Abstract Accurate ascertainment of the number of children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important to plan paediatric and adolescent health services. In Europe, the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected survivors are transferring to adult care and their health needs are unknown. We undertook an online survey of HIV cohort studies participating in the EuroCoord Network of Excellence to ascertain the number of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) patients included, to compare it with those published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and to assess the ability of countries to follow up pHIV patients after transfer to adult care. At the end of 2013, 16 countries in EuroCoord reported 8,229 pHIV patients in follow-up in cohorts, compared with 5,160 cumulative diagnoses reported by the ECDC in the same area. Follow-up of pHIV patients after transfer to adult care varied. It is likely that the number of diagnoses of perinatal HIV reported to ECDC is an underestimate, although this varies by country. Further work is needed to refine estimates and encourage follow-up in adult HIV cohorts to investigate long-term outcomes and improve the care of the next generation of children with HIV.