EPPICC

29

Apr, 2018

Long-term trends in mortality and AIDS-defining events after combination ART initiation among children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection in 17 middle- and high-income countries in Europe and Thailand: A cohort study

 

Authors: Judd A, Chappell E, Turkova A; for European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) Study Group in EuroCoord.

Published in: PLoS Med. 2018;15(1): e1002491

Background Published estimates of mortality and progression to AIDS as children with HIV approach adulthood are limited. We describe rates and risk factors for death and AIDS-defining events in children and adolescents after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in 17 middle- and high-income countries, including some in Western and Central Europe (W&CE), Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine), and Thailand.

Methods and Findings Children with perinatal HIV aged <18 years initiating cART were followed until their 21st birthday, transfer to adult care, death, loss to follow-up, or last visit up until 31 December 2013. Rates of death and first AIDS-defining events were calculated. Baseline and time-updated risk factors for early/late (≤/>6 months of cART) death and progression to AIDS were assessed. Of 3,526 children included, 32% were from the United Kingdom or Ireland, 30% from elsewhere in W&CE, 18% from Russia or Ukraine, and 20% from Thailand. At cART initiation, median age was 5.2 (IQR 1.4–9.3) years; 35% of children aged <5 years had a CD4 lymphocyte percentage <15% in 1997–2003, which fell to 15% of children in 2011 onwards (p < 0.001). Similarly, 53% and 18% of children ≥5 years had a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 in 1997–2003 and in 2011 onwards, respectively (p < 0.001). Median follow-up was 5.6 (2.9–8.7) years. Of 94 deaths and 237 first AIDS-defining events, 43 (46%) and 100 (42%) were within 6 months of initiating cART, respectively. Multivariable predictors of early death were: being in the first year of life; residence in Russia, Ukraine, or Thailand; AIDS at cART start; initiating cART on a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen; severe immune suppression; and low BMI-for-age z-score. Current severe immune suppression, low current BMI-for-age z-score, and current viral load >400 c/mL predicted late death. Predictors of early and late progression to AIDS were similar. Study limitations include incomplete recording of US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) disease stage B events and serious adverse events in some countries; events that were distributed over a long time period, and that we lacked power to analyse trends in patterns and causes of death over time.

Conclusions In our study, 3,526 children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) in countries in Europe and Thailand. We observed that over 40% of deaths occurred ≤6 months after cART initiation. Greater early mortality risk in infants, as compared to older children, and in Russia, Ukraine, or Thailand as compared to W&CE, raises concern. Current severe immune suppression, being underweight, and unsuppressed viral load were associated with a higher risk of death at >6 months after initiation of cART.

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25

Mar, 2018

Migrant women living with HIV in Europe: are they facing inequalities in the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV?: The European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord

 

Authors: Favarato G, Bailey H, Burns F, et al.

Published in: Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(1):55-60

Background In pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care.
Methods Four cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002–12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions. We compared three suboptimal PMTCT interventions (HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy in women undiagnosed at conception, late anti-retroviral therapy (ART) start in women diagnosed but untreated at conception and detectable viral load (VL) at delivery in women on antenatal ART) in native and migrant women using multivariable logistic regression models.
Results Data included 9421 (79.9%) migrant women, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); 4134 migrant women were diagnosed in the current pregnancy, often (48.6%) presenting with CD4 count <350 cells/µl. Being a migrant was associated with HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy [OR for SSA vs. native women, 2.12 (95% CI 1.67, 2.69)] but not with late ART start if diagnosed but not on ART at conception, or with detectable VL at delivery once on ART.
Conclusions Migrant women were more likely to be diagnosed in late pregnancy but once on ART virological response was good. Good access to antenatal care enables the implementation of PMTCT protocols and optimises both maternal and children health outcomes generally.

 

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25

Mar, 2018

Time to switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV in Europe and Thailand

 

Authors: European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) Study Group in EuroCoord.

Published in: Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(4):594-603.

Background Global data on durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children with HIV is limited. We assessed time to switch to second-line therapy in 16 European countries and Thailand.

Methods Children <18-years initiating combination ART (≥2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) plus non-NRTI (NNRTI) or boosted-protease inhibitor (PI)) were included. Switch to second-line was defined as: (i) change across drug class (PI to NNRTI or vice versa) or within PI-class plus change of ≥1 NRTI; (ii) change from single to dual PI; or (iii) addition of a new drug class. Cumulative incidence of switch was calculated with death and loss-to-follow-up as competing risks.

Results Of 3,668 children included, median [IQR] age at ART initiation was 6.1 [1.7,10.5] years. Initial regimens were 32% PI, 34% nevirapine (NVP), 33% efavirenz-based. Median duration of follow-up from ART start was 5.4 [2.9,8.3] years. Cumulative incidence of switch at 5 years was 21% (95% CI 20, 23), with lowest incidence in Russia/Ukraine and highest in UK/Ireland. Median time to switch was 30 [15, 58] months, two-thirds of switches were related to treatment failure. In multivariable analysis, older age, severe immunosuppression and higher viral load at ART start, and NVP-based initial regimens were associated with increased risk of switch. Among those switched, 65% had viral load <400c/mL at 12-months after start of second-line ART.

Conclusions One in five children switched to second-line by 5 years of ART, with two-thirds failure related. Advanced HIV, older age and NVP-based regimens were associated with increased risk of switch.

 

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27

Dec, 2017

Safety of zidovudine/lamivudine scored tablets in children with HIV infection in Europe and Thailand.

 

Authors: European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord.

Published inEur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;73(4):463-468

Background Zidovudine (ZDV) has been associated with risk of haematological toxicity. Safety data from clinical trials is generally limited to 48 weeks. We assessed the short- and mid-term toxicity of ZDV/lamivudine (3TC) fixed-dose combination scored tablets in HIV-infected children followed in the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) network.

Methods Fourteen cohorts provided data on patients <18 years of age taking ZDV/3TC scored tablets between 2008 and 2012. Rates of Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grade ≥3 laboratory adverse events (AEs) for hepatobiliary and haematological disorders were estimated by duration on drug (<12, 12–24, >24 months). Clinical adverse events and reasons for tablet discontinuation were described.

Results Of 541 patients on ZDV/3TC, 388 (72%) had weight and dose data available, of whom 350 (90%) weighed ≥14 kg and were eligible for tablet use; 161 (41%) were aged <10 years on an approved dose, 189 (49%) aged ≥10 years on an approved dose, and 30 (8%) were on an unapproved dose. Median age at ZDV/3TC start was 10 years, and 79% had taken ART previously (60% had prior exposure to ZDV/3TC). Overall rates of grade ≥3 AEs for absolute neutrophil counts, bilirubin, haemoglobin, platelet counts, white blood cell counts (WBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were ≤2/100 person years (PY) for patients taking approved doses. Two hundred thirty-three (43%) patients were not on ZDV/3TC tablets at most recent follow-up; a small number (17 (7%)) discontinued due to AEs (17 (7%)), and the most common reason for discontinuation was treatment simplification (73 (31%)).

Conclusions Scored ZDV/3TC tablets, both approved and taken off-label, appear to be well tolerated with few side effects. Few patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity. As ZDV/3TC tablets are taken with other antiretrovirals, it is difficult to infer association between toxicities and specific agents, highlighting the importance of widening long-term pharmacovigilance to a broader spectrum of drug combinations.

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24

Jun, 2017

Optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in HIV-positive children and adolescents – a multiregion analysis from Southern Africa, West Africa, and Europe

 

Authors: Schomaker M, Leroy V, Wolfs T, et al. On behalf of theIeDEA West and Southern Africa regional collaborations and COHERE in EuroCoord.

Published in: Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46(2):453-465.

Background: There is limited knowledge about the optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in older children and adolescents.

Methods: A total of 20 576 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients, aged 1-16 years at enrolment, from 19 cohorts in Europe, Southern Africa and West Africa, were included. We compared mortality and growth outcomes for different ART initiation criteria, aligned with previous and recent World Health Organization criteria, for 5 years of follow-up, adjusting for all measured baseline and time-dependent confounders using the g-formula.

Results: Median (1st;3rd percentile) CD4 count at baseline was 676 cells/mm3(394; 1037) (children aged ≥ 1 and < 5 years), 373 (172; 630) (≥ 5 and < 10 years) and 238 (88; 425) (≥ 10 and < 16 years). There was a general trend towards lower mortality and better growth with earlier treatment initiation. In children < 10 years old at enrolment, by 5 years of follow-up there was lower mortality and a higher mean height-for-age z-score with immediate ART initiation versus delaying until CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3 (or CD4% < 15% or weight-for-age z-score < -2) with absolute differences in mortality and height-for-age z-score of 0.3% (95% confidence interval: 0.1%; 0.6%) and -0.08 (-0.09; -0.06) (≥ 1 and < 5 years), and 0.3% (0.04%; 0.5%) and -0.07 (-0.08; -0.05) (≥ 5 and < 10 years). In those aged > 10 years at enrolment we did not find any difference in mortality or growth with immediate ART initiation, with estimated differences of -0.1% (-0.2%; 0.6%) and -0.03 (-0.05; 0.00), respectively. Growth differences in children aged < 10 years persisted for treatment thresholds using higher CD4 values. Regular follow-up led to better height and mortality outcomes.

Conclusions: Immediate ART is associated with lower mortality and better growth for up to 5 years in children < 10 years old. Our results on adolescents were inconclusive.

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18

Jun, 2017

Co-infection with HIV and HCV in 229 children and young adults living in Europe

 

Authors: Thorne C, Turkova A, Indolfi G, Venturini E, Giaquinto C

Published in: AIDS. 2017;31(1):127-135.

Objective To characterize children, adolescents and young adults infected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertically or before age of 18 years and living in Europe regarding mode of acquisition, HCV genotype, clinical status and treatment.

Design Retrospective, cross-sectional study using pooled data from 11 European paediatric HIV cohorts.

Methods Patients aged more than 18 months and less than 25 years, with HIV/HCV acquired vertically or in childhood, were included. Anonymized individual patient data were collected using a standard protocol and modified HIV Cohorts Data Exchange Protocol.

Results Of 229 patients included, 142 (62%) had vertically acquired infection. Median age at last follow-up was 16.2 years. Most children had HCV genotype 1 (101/184, 55%) or 3 (57/184, 31%). One-fifth (46/214) had a previous AIDS diagnosis (data missing on prior AIDS diagnoses for 15). At their last clinic visit, 70% (145/208) had no/mild immunosuppression (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage 1), and 131 of 179 on antiretroviral therapy had undetectable HIV RNA (assay thresholds varied from <20 to <150 copies/ml). Overall, 42% (86/204) had hepatomegaly in the previous year, and 55% (116/213) had alanine aminotransferase more than 40 IU/l at their last test. Of 97 patients with transient elastography, 12 had results more than 9 kPa; this was associated with duration of HCV infection (P = 0.033), but not with CD4 cell count, antiretroviral therapy use or sex in univariable analysis. Of 17 patients with liver biopsies, six had bridging fibrosis and one had cirrhosis. Twenty-five (11%) had been treated successfully for HCV.

Conclusion The high proportion of patients with progressive liver disease underscores the need for close monitoring and earlier and more effective HCV treatment.

12

Dec, 2016

Prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postnatal HIV-positive women in Ukraine: a cross-sectional survey

 

Authors: Bailey H, Malyuta R, Townsend C, Cortina Borja M, Thorne C for the Ukraine European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord.

Published in: Reprod Health. 2016;22(3):13-27.

Background Perinatal depression among HIV-positive women has negative implications for HIV-related and other maternal and infant outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and correlates of perinatal depression among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, a lower middle income country with one of the largest HIV-positive populations in Europe.

Methods Cross-sectional surveys nested within the Ukraine European Collaborative Study were conducted of HIV-positive women at delivery and between 1 and 12 months postpartum. Depressive symptoms in the previous month were assessed using a self-report screening tool. Other data collected included demographics, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related self-efficacy, and perceptions of risks/benefits of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Characteristics of women with and without a positive depression screening test result were compared using Fisher’s exact test and χ2 test for categorical variables.

Results A quarter (27% (49/180) antenatally and 25% (57/228) postnatally) of participants screened positive for depressive symptoms. Antenatal risk factors were living alone (58% (7/12) vs. 25% (42/167) p = 0.02), being somewhat/terribly bothered by ART side effects (40% (17/43) vs. 23% (30/129) not /only slightly bothered, p = 0.05) and having lower ART-related self-efficacy (43% (12/28) vs. 23% (25/110) with higher self-efficacy, p = 0.05). Postnatally, single mothers were more likely to screen positive (44% (20/45) vs. 21% (18/84) of cohabiting and 19% (19/99) of married women, p < 0.01) as were those unsure of the effectiveness of neonatal prophylaxis (40% (20/45) vs. 18% (28/154) sure of effectiveness, p < 0.01), those worried that neonatal prophylaxis could harm the baby (30% (44/146) vs. 14% (10/73) not worried p < 0.01) and those not confident to ask for help with taking ART (48% (11/23) vs. 27% (10/37) fairly confident and 15 % (4/26) confident that they could do this). Of women who reported wanting help for their depressive symptoms, 82% (37/45) postnatally but only 31% (12/39) antenatally were already accessing peer counselling, treatment adherence programmes, support groups or social services.

Conclusions A quarter of women screened positive for depression. Results highlight the need for proactive strategies to identify depressive symptoms, and an unmet need for provision of mental health support in the perinatal period for HIV-positive women in Ukraine.

 

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20

Nov, 2016

Tuberculosis in HIV-infected children in Europe, Thailand and Brazil: paediatric TB-HIV EuroCoord study

 

Authors: Turkova A, Chappell E, Chalermpantmetagul S, et al.

Published in: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2016;20(11):1448-1456.

Setting Centres participating in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA), including Thailand and Brazil.

Objective To describe the incidence, presentation, treatment and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children.

Design Observational study of TB diagnosed in HIV-infected children in 2011–2013.

Results Of 4265 children aged <16 years, 127 (3%) were diagnosed with TB: 6 (5%) in Western Europe, 80 (63%) in Eastern Europe, 27 (21%) in Thailand and 14 (11%) in Brazil, with estimated TB incidence rates of respectively 239, 982, 1633 and 2551 per 100 000 person-years (py). The majority (94%) had acquired HIV perinatally. The median age at TB diagnosis was 6.8 years (interquartile range 3.0–11.5). Over half (52%) had advanced/severe World Health Organization stage immunodeficiency; 67 (53%) were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at TB diagnosis. Preventive anti-tuberculosis treatment was given to 23% (n = 23) of 102 children diagnosed with HIV before TB. Eleven children had unfavourable TB outcomes: 4 died, 5 did not complete treatment, 1 had recurrent TB and 1 had an unknown outcome. In univariable analysis, previous diagnosis of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome, not being virologically suppressed on ART at TB diagnosis and region (Brazil) were significantly associated with unfavourable TB outcomes.

Conclusion Most TB cases were from countries with high TB prevalence. The majority (91%) had favourable outcomes. Universal ART and TB prophylaxis may reduce missed opportunities for TB prevention.

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12

Nov, 2016

Safety of darunavir and atazanavir in HIV-infected children in Europe and Thailand

 

Authors: European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord.

Published in: Antivir Ther. 2016; 21(4): 353-8

Background Surveillance for mid- and long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) toxicity in children is important for informing treatment guidelines. We assessed the safety of darunavir (DRV) and atazanavir (ATV), commonly used as second-line protease inhibitors following lopinavir/ritonavir, in Europe and Thailand.

Methods Cohorts contributed individual patient data on adverse events (AE) in those aged <18 years taking DRV and ATV, respectively, to 02/2014. Rates of Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grade ≥3 laboratory AEs were calculated.

Results Of 431 patients on DRV and 372 on ATV, 317 (74%) and 301 (81%), respectively, had weight and dose data available, of whom 56 (18%) and 33 (9%) took the drugs at a non-approved age or dose. Median age at DRV and ATV start was 14.8 years (IQR 12.8-16.1) and 13.5 years (11.4-15.2); 43% and 26% had received ≥8 ART drugs previously. Overall rates of grade ≥3 AEs for absolute neutrophils, total cholesterol, triglycerides, pancreatic amylase, lipase and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were ≤3/100 person-years (PY) on approved doses of both drugs, but 66/100 PY (95% CI 52, 84) for bilirubin after <12 months on ATV declining to 32/100 PY (95% CI 23, 44) after >24 months. Five serious drug-related clinical AEs were reported in four patients on ATV (one discontinued) and three in three patients on DRV (all discontinued), and did not substantially differ in those on approved compared to non-approved doses. Proportions on the drugs at last follow-up were 89% (383/431) for DRV and 81% (301/372) for ATV (including 73/92 with grade ≥3 hyperbilirubinaemia).

Conclusions AEs were few in number and comparable for the two drugs, with the exception of high rates of hyperbilirubinaemia for ATV; few patients discontinued due to toxicity.

8

Nov, 2016

Prevalence and effect of pre-treatment drug resistance on the virological response to antiretroviral treatment initiated in HIV-infected children – a EuroCoord-CHAIN-EPPICC joint project.

 

Authors: Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Wittkop L, Judd A, et al. For EuroCoord-CHAIN-EPPICC joint project study group.

Published in: BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):654.

Background Few studies have evaluated the impact of pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) on response to combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in children. The objective of this joint EuroCoord-CHAIN-EPPICC/PENTA project was to assess the prevalence of PDR mutations and their association with virological outcome in the first year of cART in children.

Methods HIV-infected children <18 years initiating cART between 1998 and 2008 were included if having at least one genotypic resistance test prior to cART initiation. We used the World Health Organization 2009 resistance mutation list and Stanford algorithm to infer resistance to prescribed drugs. Time to virological failure (VF) was defined as the first of two consecutive HIV-RNA > 500 copies/mL after 6 months cART and was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. All models were adjusted for baseline demographic, clinical, immunology and virology characteristics and calendar period of cART start and initial cART regimen.

Results Of 476 children, 88 % were vertically infected. At cART initiation, median (interquartile range) age was 6.6 years (2.1–10.1), CD4 cell count 297 cells/mm3(98–639), and HIV-RNA 5.2 log10copies/mL (4.7–5.7). Of 37 children (7.8 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 5.5–10.6) harboring a virus with ≥1 PDR mutations, 30 children had a virus resistant to ≥1 of the prescribed drugs. Overall, the cumulative Kaplan-Meier estimate for virological failure was 19.8 % (95 %CI, 16.4–23.9). Cumulative risk for VF tended to be higher among children harboring a virus with PDR and resistant to ≥1 drug prescribed than among those receiving fully active cART: 32.1 % (17.2–54.8) versus 19.4 % (15.9–23.6) (P = 0.095). In multivariable analysis, age was associated with a higher risk of VF with a 12 % reduced risk per additional year (HR 0.88; 95 %CI, 0.82–0.95; P < 0.001).

Conclusions PDR was not significantly associated with a higher risk of VF in children in the first year of cART. The risk of VF decreased by 12 % per additional year at treatment initiation which may be due to fading of PDR mutations over time. Lack of appropriate formulations, in particular for the younger age group, may be an important determinant of virological failure.

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