Penta HIV Trials

1

Jun, 2016

Weekends-off efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults (BREATHER): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 2/3 trial

 

Author: The BREATHER (PENTA 16) Trial Group

Published inLancet HIV. 2016;3(9):e421-430

Background For HIV-1-infected young people facing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART), short cycle therapy with long-acting drugs offers potential for drug-free weekends, less toxicity, and better quality-of-life. We aimed to compare short cycle therapy (5 days on, 2 days off ART) versus continuous therapy (continuous ART).

Methods In this open-label, non-inferiority trial (BREATHER), eligible participants were aged 8–24 years, were stable on first-line efavirenz with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and had HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 50 copies per mL for 12 months or longer. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to remain on continuous therapy or change to short cycle therapy according to a computer-generated randomisation list, with permuted blocks of varying size, stratified by age and African versus non-African sites; the list was prepared by the trial statistician and randomisation was done via a web service accessed by site clinician or one of the three coordinating trials units. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with confirmed viral load 50 copies per mL or higher at any time up to the 48 week assessment, estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The trial was powered to exclude a non-inferiority margin of 12%. Analyses were intention to treat. The trial was registered with EudraCT, number 2009-012947-40, ISRCTN, number 97755073, and CTA, number 27505/0005/001-0001.

Findings Between April 1, 2011, and June 28, 2013, 199 participants from 11 countries worldwide were randomly assigned, 99 to the short cycle therapy and 100 to continuous therapy, and were followed up until the last patient reached 48 weeks. 105 (53%) were men, median age was 14 years (IQR 12–18), and median CD4 cell count was 735 cells per μL (IQR 576–968). Six (6%) patients assigned to the short cycle therapy versus seven (7%) assigned to continuous therapy had confirmed viral load 50 copies per mL or higher (difference −1·2%, 90% CI −7·3 to 4·9, non-inferiority shown). 13 grade 3 or 4 events occurred in the short cycle therapy group and 14 in the continuous therapy group (p=0·89). Two ART-related adverse events (one gynaecomastia and one spontaneous abortion) occurred in the short cycle therapy group compared with 14 (p=0·02) in the continuous therapy group (five lipodystrophy, two gynaecomastia, one suicidal ideation, one dizziness, one headache and syncope, one spontaneous abortion, one neutropenia, and two raised transaminases).

Interpretation Non-inferiority of maintaining virological suppression in children, adolescents, and young adults was shown for short cycle therapy versus continous therapy at 48 weeks, with similar resistance and a better safety profile. This short cycle therapy strategy is a viable option for adherent HIV-infected young people who are stable on efavirenz-based ART.

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24

Apr, 2016

Neurocognition and quality of life after reinitiating antiretroviral therapy in children randomized to planned treatment interruption

 

Authors: Ananworanich J, Melvin D, Ramos Amador JT, et al; on behalf of the PENTA 11 study group.

Published in: AIDS. 2016;30(7):1075-81.

Objective Understanding the effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption on neurocognition and quality of life (QoL) are important for managing unplanned interruptions and planned interruptions in HIV cure research.

Design Children previously randomized to continuous (continuous ART, n = 41) vs. planned treatment interruption (PTI, n = 47) in the Pediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) 11 study were enrolled. At study end, PTI children resumed ART. At 1 and 2 years following study end, children were assessed by the coding, symbol search and digit span subtests of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years old) or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (≥17 years old) and by Pediatrics QoL questionnaires for physical and psychological QoL. Transformed scaled scores for neurocognition and mean standardized scores for QoL were compared between arms by t-test and Mann–Whitney U test, respectively. Scores indicating clinical concern were compared (<7 for neurocognition and <70 for QoL tests).

Results Characteristics were similar between arms with a median age of 12.6 years, CD4+ of 830 cells/μl and HIV RNA of 1.7 log10copies/ml. The median cumulative ART exposure was 9.6 in continuous ART vs. 7.7 years in PTI (P = 0.02). PTI children had a median of 12 months off ART and had resumed ART for 25.2 months at time of first assessment. Neurocognitive scores were similar between arms for all tests. Physical and psychological QoL scores were no different. About 40% had low neurocognitive and QoL scores indicating clinical concern.

Conclusion No differences in information processing speed, sustained attention, short-term memory and QoL functioning were observed between children previously randomized to continuous ART vs. PTI in the PENTA 11 trial.

1

Jan, 2016

When information does not suffice: young people living with HIV and communication about ART adherence in the clinic

 

Authors: S. Bernays, S. Paparini, D. Gibb & J. Seeley

Published in: Vulnerable Child Youth Stud. 2016;11(1):60-68

Abstract Despite mounting evidence recommending disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status to young people with perinatally acquired HIV as a central motivating factor for adherence to antiretroviral therapy, many young people continue to experience disclosure as a partial event, rather than a process. Drawing from two longitudinal, interview-based qualitative studies with young people living with HIV (aged 10-24) in five different countries in low and high income settings, we present data regarding disclosure and information about HIV in the clinic. The article highlights the limits of discussions framing disclosure and patient literacy, and young people’s reluctance to voice their adherence difficulties in the context of their relationships with clinical care teams. We suggest that a clinician-initiated, explicit acknowledgment of the social and practical hurdles of daily adherence for young people would aid a more transparent conversation and encourage young people to disclose missed doses and other problems they may be facing with their treatment. This may help to reduce health harms and poor adherence in the longer-term.

 

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18

Sep, 2015

HIV-1 Drug Resistance and Second-line Treatment in Children Randomized to Switch at Low versus Higher RNA Thresholds

 

Authors: Harrison L, Melvin A, Fiscus S, et al. For PENPACT-1 (PENTA 9PACTG 390) Study Team.

Published in: JAIDS 2015;70(1):42-53

Background The PENPACT-1 trial compared virologic thresholds to determine when to switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using PENPACT-1 data, we aimed to describe HIV-1 drug resistance accumulation on first-line ART by virologic threshold.

Methods PENPACT-1 had a 2 × 2 factorial design, randomizing HIV-infected children to start protease inhibitor (PI) versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and switch at a 1000 copies/mL versus 30,000 copies/mL threshold. Switch criteria were not achieving the threshold by week 24, confirmed rebound above the threshold thereafter, or Center for Disease Control and Prevention stage C event. Resistance tests were performed on samples ≥1000 copies/mL before switch, resuppression, and at 4-years/trial end.

Results Sixty-seven children started PI-based ART and were randomized to switch at 1000 copies/mL (PI-1000), 64 PIs and 30,000 copies/mL (PI-30,000), 67 NNRTIs and 1000 copies/mL (NNRTI-1000), and 65 NNRTI and 30,000 copies/mL (NNRTI-30,000). Ninety-four (36%) children reached the 1000 copies/mL switch criteria during 5-year follow-up. In 30,000 copies/mL threshold arms, median time from 1000 to 30,000 copies/mL switch criteria was 58 (PI) versus 80 (NNRTI) weeks (P = 0.81). In NNRTI-30,000, more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance mutations accumulated than other groups. NNRTI mutations were selected before switching at 1000 copies/mL (23% NNRTI-1000, 27% NNRTI-30,000). Sixty-two children started abacavir + lamivudine, 166 lamivudine + zidovudine or stavudine, and 35 other NRTIs. The abacavir + lamivudine group acquired fewest NRTI mutations. Of 60 switched to second-line, 79% PI-1000, 63% PI-30,000, 64% NNRTI-1000, and 100% NNRTI-30,000 were <400 copies/mL 24 weeks later.

Conclusions Children on first-line NNRTI-based ART who were randomized to switch at a higher virologic threshold developed the most resistance, yet resuppressed on second-line. An abacavir + lamivudine NRTI combination seemed protective against development of NRTI resistance.

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11

Sep, 2015

I was like, oh my God, what happens if it doesn’t work’? Young people living with HIV, clinical trial participation and the truth economy

 

Authors: Bernays S, Seeley J, Paparini S, Rhodes T

Published: BSA Medical Sociology Conference, York, 9-11 September 2015 (Paper ID No: W0012148)

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18

Jul, 2015

I am scared of getting caught up in my lie’: challenges to self-reported adherence for young people living with HIV

 

Authors:  Bernays S, Seeley J, Paparini S, Rhodes T and the ARROW and BREATHER trial teams.

Published in: accepted for presentation at AIDS Impact, Amsterdam 28-31 July, 2015 (abstract 3435)

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18

Jul, 2015

Young people, clinical trials and ‘the HIV experience’: What can similarities across time and place tell us about growing up with HIV?

 

Authors:  Paparini S on behalf of Bernays S, Seeley S,  Rhodes T,  Namukwaya Kihika S,Kawuma-Kigawa R, Nakyambadde H, Kabajaasi O and the BREATHER Trial Team.

Published in: 3rd International ASSHH Conference, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-9 July 2015.

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18

Jul, 2015

“But it’s my story”: exploring the experience and effect of telling children how they have acquired HIV

 

Authors:  Seeley J on behalf of the Bernays S, Paparini S, Namukwaya Kihika S,  Rhodes T and the BREATHER Trial Team.

Published in: 3rd International ASSHH Conference, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-9 July 2015.

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19

Apr, 2015

Once vs. twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected children.

 

Authors: Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA).

Published in: AIDS 2015. 29(18):2447-2457

Objective To evaluate whether once daily (q.d.) lopinavir/ritonavir is noninferior to twice daily (b.i.d.) dosing in children.

Design International, multicentre, phase II/III, randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial (KONCERT/PENTA18/ANRS150).

Setting Clinical centres participating in the PENTA, HIV-NAT and PHPT networks.

Participants Children/adolescents with HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 50 copies/ml for at least 24 weeks on lopinavir/ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy.

Intervention Children were randomized to continue lopinavir/ritonavir b.i.d. or change to q.d.

Main Outcome Measure Confirmed viral load ≥50 copies/ml by 48 weeks (12% noninferiority margin).

Results One hundred seventy-three children were randomized in the KONCERT trial (86 q.d., 87 b.i.d.); 46% men, median (IQR) age 11 (9-14) years, CD4% 33 (27-38)%. By week 48, 97 and 98% of time was spent on q.d. and b.i.d., respectively (one q.d. child lost at week 4). Twelve q.d. vs. seven b.i.d. children had confirmed viral load ≥50 copies/ml within 48 weeks; estimated difference in percentage with viral load rebound 6% [90% CI (-2, 14)]. Numbers of children with grade 3/4 adverse events (11 vs. 7) or major resistance mutations (3 vs. 2) were similar, q.d. vs. b.i.d. (both P > 0.3). Among 26 children in an intrasubject lopinavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetic substudy, lower daily exposure (AUC0-24 161 h.mg/l vs. 224 h.mg/l) and lower Clast (1.03 mg/l vs. 5.69 mg/l) were observed with q.d. vs. b.i.d. dosing.

Conclusion Noninferiority for viral load suppression on q.d. vs. b.i.d. lopinavir/ritonavir was not demonstrated. Although results, therefore, do not support routine use of q.d. lopinavir/ritonavir, lack of safety concerns or resistance suggest that q.d. dosing remains an option in selected, adherent children, with close viral load monitoring.

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23

Feb, 2015

ART With Weekends Off Is Noninferior to Continuous ART in Young People on EFV+2NRTI

 

Authors: Karina M. Butler on behalf of the BREATHER trial team

Published in: CROI 2015, Seattle, USA, Feb 23 -26 2015.

Abstract For HIV-1 infected young people (YP) facing lifelong ART, short cycle therapy (SCT) with long-acting agents offers the potential for drug-free weekends, less toxicity and better adherence, as well as cost savings.

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