Jan, 2010

Response to Planned Treatment Interruptions in HIV-infection varies across Childhood in the PENTA 11 Trial


Authors: Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS.

Published in: AIDS. 2010;24(2):231-241.

Objective To evaluate clinical, immunological and virological consequences of CD4-guided antiretroviral therapy (ART) planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) compared with continuous therapy in children with chronic HIV infection in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS 11 trial.

Design This was a multicentre, 72-week, open, randomized, phase II trial.Methods:One hundred and nine children with HIV-RNA below 50 copies/ml and CD4% of at least 30% (2–6 years) or at least 25% and CD4 cell count of at least 500 cells/μl (7–15 years) were randomized to continuous therapy (53) or PTI (56). In PTI, ART was restarted if confirmed CD4% was less than 20% or more than 48 weeks had been spent off ART. The primary outcome was Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C event, death or CD4% less than 15% (and CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/μl for children aged 7–15 years).

Results At baseline, median (interquartile range) age was 9 (6–12) years, CD4% 37% (33–41), CD4 cell count 966 (793–1258) cells/μl, nadir CD4% before combination ART 18% (10–27), time on ART 6 (3–6) years and 26% were CDC stage C. After median (range) 130 (33–180) weeks of follow-up, 4 versus 48% of time was spent off ART in continuous therapy and PTI, respectively. No child died or had a new CDC stage C event; one (2%) continuous therapy versus four (7%) PTI children had a primary outcome based on CD4%/cell count (P = 0.2). Lower nadir CD4% predicted faster CD4% decline after stopping ART. Younger age and higher nadir CD4% predicted being off ART for at least 48 weeks and better CD4% recovery following PTI.

Conclusion In this first paediatric trial of PTI, there were no serious clinical outcomes. Younger children had better CD4% recovery after PTIs. Immunology substudies and long-term follow-up in Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS 11 trial are ongoing. Further research into the role of treatment interruption in children is required, particularly, as guidelines now recommend early ART for all infected infants.


Jul, 2009

Adherence to ART and acceptability of planned treatment interruptions (PTI) in the PENTA 11 trial


Authors: Harrison L, Hamadache D, Bunupuradah T, Mazza A, Ramos Amador JT, Flynn J, Rampon O, Mellado Pena MJ, Floret D, Marczynska M, Puga A, Farrelly L, Riault Y, Lallemant M, Compagnucci A on behalf of the PENTA Trial Steering Committee.

Published in: 1st International Workshop on HIV Pediatrics, 17 – 18 July 2009, Cape Town, South Africa. (Poster P_90). 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, Cape Town 19-22 July 2009



Nov, 2008

Treatment interruption in children with chronic HIV-infection: the results of the paediatric European network for treatment of AIDS (PENTA) 11 trial.


Authors: Gibb DM, Compagnucci A, Green H, Lallemant M, et al.

Published in: Journal of the International AIDS Society 2008, 11(Suppl 1):O21 (10 November 2008)


May, 2008

Plasma drug concentrations and virologic evaluations after stopping non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in HIV-1 infected children


Authors: Cressey TR, Green H, Khoo S, Treluyer J-M, Compagnucci A, Saidi Y, Lallement M, Gibb DM, Burger D.

Published in: Clin Infect Dis 2008. 15;46(10):1601-8 

Background The optimum strategy for stopping treatment with drugs that have different half-lives in a combination regimen to minimize the risk of selecting drug-resistant viruses remains unknown. We evaluated drug concentrations in plasma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load, and development of drug resistance after a planned treatment interruption of a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimen in HIV type 1-infected children.

Methods Children with viral loads <50 copies/mL and CD4 cell percentages > or =30% (for children aged 2-6 years) or CD4 cell percentages > or =25% and CD4 cell counts > or =500 cells/microL (for children aged 7-15 years) were randomized to either a planned treatment interruption or to continuous therapy. In the planned treatment interruption arm, either (1) treatment with nevirapine or efavirenz was stopped, and treatment with the remaining drugs was continued for 7-14 days, or (2) nevirapine or efavirenz were replaced by a protease inhibitor, and all drugs were stopped after 7-14 days. Sampling for determination of plasma drug concentrations, measurement of viral load, and drug resistance testing was scheduled at day 0, day 7 (drug concentrations only), day 14, and day 28 after interruption of treatment with an NNRTI.

Results Treatment with an NNRTI was interrupted for 35 children (20 were receiving nevirapine, and 15 were receiving efavirenz). Median time from NNRTI cessation to stopping all drugs was 9 days (range, 6-15 days) for nevirapine and 14 days (range, 6-18 days) for efavirenz. At 7 days, 1 (5%) of 19 and 4 (50%) of 8 children had detectable nevirapine and efavirenz concentrations, respectively; efavirenz remained detectable in 3 (25%) of 12 children at 14 days. At 14 days, viral load was > or =50 copies/mL in 6 of 16 children interrupting treatment with nevirapine (range, 52-7000 copies/mL) and in 2 of 12 children interrupting treatment with efavirenz (range, 120-1600 copies/mL). No new NNRTI mutations were observed.

Conclusions In children with virological suppression who experienced interruption of treatment with an NNRTI, staggered or replacement stopping strategies for a median of 9 days for nevirapine and 14 days for efavirenz were not associated with the selection of NNRTI resistance mutations.



Aug, 2006

Pharmacokinetic and virological evaluations after stopping NNRTIs in children: a substudy of the PENTA 11 (TICCH) trial


Authors:  Lallemant M, Burger D, Lyall H, Buck L, Compagnucci A, Ramos Amador J.T, Mellado Pena M, Fregonese F, Campbell S, Rampon O, Castelli-Gattinara G, Cressey, Khoo S, Tréluyer J.-M, Green H, Saidi Y, Nadal D, Giaquinto C, Gibb D.M on behalf of the PENTA 11 study group.

Published in: XVI International AIDS Conference, Toronto, 13-18 August 2006. Poster MOPE0206