Publications

14

Oct, 2019

Re-introduction of dengue virus serotype 2 in the state of Rio de Janeiro after almost a decade of epidemiological silence

 

Authors: Torres MC, de Bruycker Nogueira F, Fernandes CA, et al.

Published in: PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0225879

Abstract The Asian/American genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) has been introduced in Brazil through the state of Rio de Janeiro around 1990, and since then it has been spreading and evolving, leading to several waves of dengue epidemics throughout the country that cause a major public health problem. Of particular interest has been the epidemic of 2008, whose highest impact was evidenced in the state of Rio de Janeiro, with a higher number of severe cases and mortality rate, compared to previous outbreaks. Interestingly, no circulation of DENV-2 was witnessed in this region during the preceding 9-year period. By early 2010, phylogenetic analysis of the 2008 epidemic strain revealed that the outbreak was caused by a new viral lineage of the Asian/American genotype, which was pointed as responsible for the outbreak severity as well. The same scenario is repeating in 2019 in this state; however, only a few cases have been detected yet. To provide information that helps to the understanding of DENV-2 dynamics in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and thereafter contribute to public health control and prevention actions, we employed phylogenetic studies combined with temporal and dynamics geographical features to determine the origin of the current viral strain. To this effect, we analyzed a region of 1626 nucleotides entailing the Envelope/NS1 viral genes. Our study reveals that the current strain belongs to the same lineage that caused the 2008 outbreak, however, it is phylogenetically distant from any Brazilian strain identified so far. Indeed, it seemed to be originated in Puerto Rico around 2002 and has been introduced into the state in late 2018. Taking into account that no DENV-2 case was reported over the last decade in the state (representing a whole susceptible children generation), and the fact that a new viral strain may be causing current dengue infections, these results will be influential in strengthening dengue surveillance and disease control, mitigating the potential epidemiological consequences of virus spread.

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13

Oct, 2019

Follow-up of children with confirmed perinatal Zika Virus (ZIKV) exposure: the first 2 years-experience in the Costa Rican tertiary pediatric hospital

 

Authors: Brenes-Chacón H, Ávila-Agüero ML, Camacho-Badilla K, Naranjo-Zuñiga G, Benavides-Lara A,  Soriano-Fallas A

Published in: ID Week, Washington DC, October 2nd – 6th 2019

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1

Oct, 2019

Experimental infection of pregnant female sheep with Zika Virus during early gestation

 

Authors: Schwarz ER, Pozor MA, Pu R, et al.

Published in: Viruses. 2019;11(9)

Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vertically and sexually transmissible virus resulting in severe congenital malformation. The goal of this study was to develop an ovine model of ZIKV infection. Between 28–35 days gestation (DG), four pregnant animals were infected with two doses of 6 × 106 PFU of ZIKV; four control animals received PBS. Animals were evaluated for 45 days (D) post-infection (PI) and necropsies were performed. Viral RNA was detected in infected ewe peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during the first week PI; however, all fluids and tissues were negative upon culture. Anti-ZIKV IgM (1:400) and neutralizing antibodies were detected in all infected animals. Clinical disease, virus, or ZIKV antibodies were not detected in control ewes. After two weeks PI, fetal loss occurred in two infected animals, and at necropsy, three infected animals had placental petechiation and ecchymosis and one had hydramnion. Fetal morphometrics revealed smaller cranial circumference to crown-rump length ratios (p < 0.001) and relative brain weights (p = 0.038) in fetuses of infected animals compared with control fetuses. Immunophenotyping indicated an increase in B cells (p = 0.012) in infected sheep. Additionally, in vitro experiments using both adult and fetal cell lines demonstrated that ovine cells are highly permissive to ZIKV infection. In conclusion, ZIKV infection of pregnant sheep results in a change in fetal growth and gestational outcomes.

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1

Oct, 2019

Pregnancy outcomes after maternal Zika virus infection in a non-endemic region: prospective cohort study

 

Authors: Sulleiro E, Rando A, Alejo I, et al.

Published in: Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019;25(5):633.e5-633.e9

Objectives The aim was to describe pregnancy outcomes after Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a non-endemic region.

Methods According to the Spanish protocol issued after the ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015, all pregnant women who had travelled to high-burden countries were screened for ZIKV. Serological and molecular tests were used to identify ZIKV-infected pregnant women. They were classified as confirmed ZIKV infection when reverse transcription (RT) PCR tested positive, or probable ZIKV infection when ZIKV immunoglobulin M and/or immunoglobulin G and ZIKV plaque reduction neutralization tests were positive. Women found positive using molecular or serological tests were prospectively followed-up with ultrasound scans and neurosonograms on a monthly basis until delivery; magnetic resonance imaging and amniotic fluid testing were performed after signed informed consent. Samples of placenta, and fetal and neonatal tissues were obtained.

Results Seventy-two pregnant women tested positive for ZIKV infection: ten were confirmed by RT-PCR, and 62 were probable cases based on serological tests. The prevalence of adverse perinatal outcomes was 33.3% (three out of nine, 95% CI 12.1-64.6%): two cases of congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZS) and one miscarriage, all born to women infected in the first trimester of gestation. All ZIKV-confirmed women had persistent viraemias beyond 2 weeks (median 61.50 days; IQR 35.50-80.75). Amniotic fluid testing was only positive in the two fetuses with anomalies.

Conclusions The prevalence of perinatal adverse outcomes for women with ZIKV-confirmed infection was 33.3%. Amniocentesis for ZIKV RT-PCR is recommended when fetal abnormalities are found. Intensive prenatal and postnatal follow-up of ZIKV-infected pregnancies is advised in confirmed cases.

1

Oct, 2019

Screening for Zika virus infection in 1057 potentially exposed pregnant women, Catalonia (northeastern Spain)

 

Authors: Sulleiro E, Rando A, Alejo I, et al.

Published in: Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019;29:69-71

No abstract available

1

Oct, 2019

Development of secondary microcephaly after delivery: possible consequence of mother-baby transmission of Zika Virus in breast milk

 

Authors: Siqueira Mello A, Pascalicchio Bertozzi APA, Rodrigues MMD, et al.

Published in: Am J Case Rep. 2019 May 21;20:723-725

Background The Zika virus is an arbovirus that has as main source of transmission the bite of infected insects of the genus Aedes and has been associated with cases of congenital malformation and microcephaly in neonates. However, other sources of transmission have been identified since the emergence of this virus in the world population, such as vertical transmission by semen and possibly other body fluids such as vaginal secretion and breast milk.
Case Report An infant, born to a mother whose previous delivery was a baby with severe microcephaly, was normal and was negative for Zika virus at birth but developed secondary microcephaly 1 month later, that persisted. The baby was exclusively breast-fed and Zika virus was present in the mother’s milk.
Conclusions We report the detection of Zika virus exclusively in the breast milk of a woman after her second delivery of an infant, who later developed microcephaly. This case is consistent with possible vertical transmission.

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1

Oct, 2019

Detection of Zika virus in paired urine and amniotic fluid samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic women and their babies during a disease outbreak: association with neurological symptoms in newborns

 

Authors: Vedovello D, Witkin SS, Silva ACB, et al.

Published in: J Neurovirol 2019 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s13365-019-00797-0

Abstract Paired maternal and newborn urine and amniotic fluid from 138 subjects collected during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak was analyzed for ZIKV by gene amplification (RT-qPCR), and the findings were correlated with clinical symptoms and neurological anomalies in the babies. ZIKV was detected in 1 of 9 symptomatic women (11.1%) and in 19 of 129 asymptomatic women (14.7%). Neurological manifestations were present in 19 babies (13.7%), 10 of 20 (50%) positive and 9 of 119 (7.6%) negative (p < 0.001) for ZIKV. Twelve (8.6%) urines collected during gestation were ZIKV-positive; only 2 remained positive for ZIKV postpartum. Six (4.1%) newborn urines collected within 1 day of delivery were ZIKV-positive cases. In 3 of these cases, ZIKV was detected in mother’s urine pre- and postpartum and in both mother’s urine and babies’ urine. Four of the amniotic fluid samples (2.9%) were ZIKV-positive. Among ZIKV-negative babies with neurological sequel, 87.5% were female; in contrast, 72.7% ZIKV-positive babies with neurological abnormalities were male (p = 0.019). We conclude that during a ZIKV outbreak, clinical symptoms and ZIKV detection in biological fluids are poor predictors of infection and adverse neurologic sequel in newborns.

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27

Sep, 2019

The challenge of the laboratory diagnosis in a confirmed congenital Zika virus syndrome in utero: a case report

 

Authors: Sulleiro E, Frick MA, Rodó C, et al.

Published in: Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(20):e15532

Introduction Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused one of the most challenging global infectious epidemics in recent years because of its causal association with severe microcephaly and other congenital malformations. The diagnosis of viral infections usually relies on the detection of virus proteins or genetic material in clinical samples as well as on the infected host immune responses. Serial serologic testing is required for the diagnosis of congenital infection when diagnostic molecular biology is not possible.

Patient concerns A 2-year-old girl, born to a mother with confirmed ZIKV infection during pregnancy, with a confirmed ZIKV infection in utero, showed at birth a severe microcephaly and clinical characteristics of fetal brain disruption sequence compatible with a congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZS).

Diagnosis ZIKV-RNA and ZIKV-IgM serological response performed at birth and during the follow-up time tested always negative. Serial serologic ZIKV-IgG tests were performed to assess the laboratory ZIKV diagnosis, ZIKV-IgG seroreversion was observed at 21 months of age. ZIKV diagnosis of this baby had to be relied on her clinical and radiological characteristics that were compatible with a CZS.

Interventions The patient was followed-up as per protocol at approximately 1, 4, 9, 12, 18-21, and 24 months of age. Neurological, radiological, audiological, and ophthalmological assessment were performed during this period of time. Prompt rehabilitation was initiated to prevent potential adverse long-term neurological outcomes.

Outcomes The growth of this girl showed a great restriction at 24 months of age with a weight of 8.5 kg (-2.5 z-score) and a head circumference of 40.5 cm (-4.8 z-score). She also had a great neurodevelopmental delay at the time of this report.

Conclusions We presume that as a consequence of prenatal ZIKV infection, the fetal brain and other organs are damaged before birth through direct injury. Following this, active infection ends during intrauterine life, and as a consequence the immune system of the infant is unable to build up a consistent immune response thereafter. Further understanding of the mechanisms taking part in the pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital infection is needed. This finding might change our paradigm regarding serological response in the ZIKV congenital infection.

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24

Sep, 2019

Non-inferiority double-blind randomised controlled trial comparing gabapentin versus tramadol for the treatment of chronic neuropathic or mixed pain in children and adolescents: the GABA-1 trial-a study protocol

 

Authors: Kaguelidou F, Le Roux E, Mangiarini L, et al.; GAPP consortium

Published in: BMJ Open. 2019;9(2):e023296

Introduction Gabapentin is currently used ‘off-label’ in children and adolescents with chronic neuropathic pain, and reliable evidence of its effects and optimal dosing are lacking.

Objectives The GABA-1 trial aims to compare the efficacy and safety of gabapentin liquid formulation relative to tramadol and to explore the pharmacokinetics of both drugs in the treatment of chronic, neuropathic or mixed pain in the paediatric population.

Methods and analysis The trial is a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial. Participants aged from 3 months to <18 years of age with moderate to severe (≥4/10 in age-appropriate pain scales) chronic neuropathic or mixed pain will be recruited in 14 clinical sites in eight European countries. A total of 94 subjects will be randomised to receive gabapentin and tramadol placebo or tramadol and gabapentin placebo throughout 16–19 weeks (including 3 weeks of titration [optimisation period], 12 weeks of treatment at a stable dose [maintenance period] and 1–4 weeks of tapering [discontinuation period]). The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of gabapentin relative to tramadol for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic neuropathic or mixed pain by comparing the difference in average pain scores (assessed by age-appropriate pain scales) between intervention arms after 15 weeks of treatment. Secondary objectives include the assessment of the safety, quality of life and global satisfaction with treatment and the description of the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic relationship of gabapentin liquid formulation and tramadol oral drops to validate the recommended paediatric doses. Only rescue pain medication by paracetamol and/or ibuprofen is allowed during the trial.

Ethics and dissemination Ethic approval was obtained in the eight participating countries. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at one or more scientific conferences.

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24

Sep, 2019

Gabapentin as add-on to morphine for severe neuropathic or mixed pain in children from age 3 months to 18 years – evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a new gabapentin liquid formulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

 

Authors: de Leeuw TG, Mangiarini L, Lundin R, et al; GAPP consortium

Published in: Trials. 2019; 20(1):368

Background Gabapentin has shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic neuropathic or mixed pain in adults. Although pediatric pain specialists have extensive experience with gabapentin for the treatment of neuropathic pain, its use is off-label. Its efficacy and safety in this context have never been shown. The aim of this trial is to compare gabapentin with placebo as add-on to morphine for the treatment of severe chronic mixed or neuropathic pain in children. This trial is part of the European Union Seventh Framework Programme project Gabapentin in Paediatric Pain (GAPP) to develop a pediatric use marketing authorization for a new gabapentin suspension.

Methods/design The GAPP-2 study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter superiority phase II study in children with severe chronic neuropathic or mixed pain. Its primary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of a gabapentin liquid formulation as adjunctive therapy to morphine. Sixty-six eligible children 3 months to 18 years of age with severe pain (pain scores ≥ 7), stratified in three age groups, will be randomized to receive gabapentin (to an accumulating dose of 45 to 63 mg/kg/day, dependent on age) or placebo, both in addition to morphine, for 12 weeks. Randomization will be preceded by a short washout period, and treatment will be initiated by a titration period of 3 weeks. After the treatment period, medication will be tapered during 4 weeks. The primary endpoint is the average pain scores in the two treatment groups (average of two measures each day for 3 days before the end-of-study visit [V10] assessed by age-appropriate pain scales (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale; Faces Pain Scale–Revised; Numeric Rating Scale). Secondary outcomes include percentage responders to treatment (subjects with 30% reduction in pain scale), number of episodes of breakthrough pain, number of rescue interventions, number of pain-free days, participant dropouts, quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and acceptability of treatment. Outcomes will be measured at the end-of-study visit after 12 weeks of treatment at the optimal gabapentin dose. Groups will be compared on an intention-to-treat basis.

Discussion We hope to provide evidence that the combination of morphine and gabapentin will provide better analgesia than morphine alone and will be safe. We also aim to obtain confirmation of the recommended pediatric dose.

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