EPIICAL

28

Feb, 2020

ushr: Understanding suppression of HIV in R

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Authors: Morris SE, Dziobek-Garrett L, Yates AJ and the EPIICAL consortium

Published in: BMC Bioinformatics 2020;21(1):52

Background HIV/AIDS is responsible for the deaths of one million people every year. Although mathematical modeling has provided many insights into the dynamics of HIV infection, there is still a lack of accessible tools for researchers unfamiliar with modeling techniques to apply them to their own clinical data.

28

Feb, 2020

Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts’ consensus statement

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Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan City, China, by January 30, 2020, a total of 9692 confirmed cases and 15,238 suspected cases have been reported around 31 provinces or cities in China. Among the confirmed cases, 1527 were severe cases, 171 had recovered and been discharged at home, and 213 died. And among these cases, a total of 28 children aged from 1 month to 17 years have been reported in China. For standardizing prevention and management of 2019-nCoV infections in children, we called up an experts’ committee to formulate this experts’ consensus statement. This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. The present consensus statement summarizes current strategies on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in children.

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28

Feb, 2020

Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus

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Since December 2019, an epidemic caused by novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection has occurred unexpectedly in China. As of 8 pm, 31 January 2020, more than 20 pediatric cases have been reported in China. Of these cases, ten patients were identified in Zhejiang Province, with an age of onset ranging from 112 days to 17 years. Following the latest National recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia caused by 2019-nCoV (the 4th edition) and current status of clinical practice in Zhejiang Province, recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory infection caused by 2019-nCoV for children were drafted by the National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, the National Children’s Regional Medical Center, Children’s Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine to further standardize the protocol for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory infection in children caused by 2019-nCoV.

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26

Feb, 2020

The covid-19 outbreak has shown we need strategies to manage panic during epidemics

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BMJ Opinion, February 2020

The ongoing covid-19 outbreak has underlined the need for more research on the nature of panic and its drivers. The strategies we have for communicating about risk and engaging with communities are insufficient. We need to better understand the links between panic, rumour, fear, and anxiety. To what extent is panic universal or are panics in fact culturally specific? How precisely is panic linked to issues of trust—whether that is trust in the government, media, or experts?

Panic is still too little studied and far too little understood. It is easily dismissed as a distraction to the main task at hand of containing an epidemic. And yet the management of panic is likely to be key to managing infectious diseases in an ever more connected world.

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Robert Peckham is MB Lee professor in the humanities and medicine, chair of the Department of History, and founding director of the Centre for the Humanities and Medicine at the University of Hong Kong. He is the author of Epidemics in Modern Asia (2016) and editor of Empires of Panic: Epidemics and Colonial Anxieties (2015).

26

Feb, 2020

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: what obstetricians need to know

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease with a rapid increase in cases and deaths since its first identification in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy; however, information on illnesses associated with other highly pathogenic coronaviruses (i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)) might provide insights into COVID-19’s effects during pregnancy.

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26

Feb, 2020

2019-nCoV epidemic: what about pregnancies?

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Considering that the 2019-nCoV seems to have a similar pathogenic potential as SARS-CoV and MERSCoV,4 pregnant women are at increased risk of severe infections, there are no specific clinical signs of coronavirus infections preceding severe complications, 5 coronaviruses have the potential to cause severe maternal or perinatal adverse outcomes, or both,2,3 and the current lack of data on the consequences of a 2019-nCoV infection during pregnancy, we recommend systematic screening of any suspected 2019-nCoV infection during pregnancy.

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26

Feb, 2020

Researching Zika in pregnancy: lessons for global preparedness

 

Authors: Ades AE, Thorne C, Soriano-Arandes A, et al.

Published in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 18

Abstract: Our understanding of congenital infections is based on prospective studies of women infected during pregnancy. The EU has funded three consortia to study Zika virus, each including a prospective study of pregnant women. Another multi-centre study has been funded by the US National Institutes of Health. This Personal View describes the study designs required to research Zika virus, and questions whether funding academics in the EU and USA to work with collaborators in outbreak areas is an effective strategy. 3 years after the 2015–16 Zika virus outbreaks, these collaborations have taught us little about vertical transmission of the virus. In the time taken to approve funding, agree contracts, secure ethics approval, and equip laboratories, Zika virus had largely disappeared. By contrast, prospective studies based on local surveillance and standard-of-care protocols have already provided valuable data. Threats to fetal and child health pose new challenges for global preparedness requiring support for the design and implementation of locally appropriate protocols. These protocols can answer the key questions earlier than externally designed studies and at lower cost. Local protocols can also provide a framework for recruitment of unexposed controls that are required to study less specific outcomes. Other priorities include accelerated development of non-invasive tests, and longer-term storage of neonatal and antenatal samples to facilitate retrospective reconstruction of cohort studies.

26

Feb, 2020

Are children less susceptible to COVID-19?

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Emerging at the end of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has become a public health threat to people allover the world. The lower airway is the primary target of the infection for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Pneumonia is always present inpatients with severe COVID-19.1,2Available reports to date show that COVID-19 seems to be uncommon in children.

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25

Feb, 2020

Novel Coronavirus infection in hospitalized infants under 1 year of age in China

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Previous studies suggest that COVID-19 is more likely to infect older adult men, particularly those with chronic comorbidities. Few infections in children have been reported. We identified all infected infants in China and described demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical features.

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25

Feb, 2020

Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records

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Background Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection.

Methods Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation.

Findings All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0 × 109 cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8–9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9–10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus.

Interpretation The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy.

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