HIV

2

Sep, 2019

The CARMA Study: Children on early suppressive ART Total HIV-1 DNA quantitation 12 years post ART initiation

 

Authors: Foster C, Dominguez S, Tagarro A, Nastouli E, Gkouleli R, Heaney J, PalmaP, Rossi P, Giaquinto C, Rojo P

Published: 10th IAS Conference on HIV Science, July 21rd-24th 2019, Mexico City

Background Future strategies aimed at achieving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission are likely to target individuals with a limited size of viral reservoir. We investigated factors associated with a low reservoir measured as total HIV-1 DNA in PBMCs in perinatally infected children (PaHIV) from 5 European centers in the EPIICAL consortium.

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2

Sep, 2019

Comparison of qPCR and dPCR methods to investigate the latent HIV reservoir in a paediatric population with long viral suppression on therapy

 

Authors: Heaney J, Busby E, Gärtner K, Grant P, Spyer MJ, O’Sullivan DM, Gkouleli T, Marcelin AG, Pillay D, Foster C, Rojo P, Palma P, Muñoz Fernández MA, deRossi A, Huggett JF, Nastouli E

Published: International Workshop on HIV Pediatrics, July 19th-20th, 2019. P_102

Background Despite effective antiretroviral therapy(ART), HIV persists as integrated provirus generating latent viral reservoirs even in the absence of detectable plasma viremia.

Latently infected cells, primarily CD4+ T cells, have the potential to release progeny virus and contribute to viral rebound after treatment interruption or HIV-1 remission.

Robust assays are needed to monitor the viral reservoir, and remission, as emerging therapeutic approaches aimed at achieving ART-free HIV remission, or cure, are likely to target individuals with low levels of total HIV-1 DNA. The current gold standard for measuring specific DNA amounts in clinical diagnostics and research is quantitative PCR (qPCR), whereas digital PCR (dPCR) is a more recent technology that has become commercially available since 2011.

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30

Aug, 2019

Dolutegravir pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum

 

Authors: Colbers A, Bollen P, Freriksen J, Konopnicki D, Weizsäcker K, Hidalgo Tenorio C, Moltó J, Taylor G, Alejandre I,  van Crevel R, Burger D; on behalf of the PANNA network

Published: 26th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, March 4th – 7th, 2019– Seattle. P_758.

 

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30

Aug, 2019

Dolutegravir pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum

 

Authors: Colbers A, Bollen P, Freriksen J, Konopnicki D, Weizsäcker K, Hidalgo Tenorio C, Moltó J, Taylor G, Alejandre I,  van Crevel R, Burger D.

Published: Oral presentation at 9th edition of the International Workshop on HIV & Women, March 2nd-3rd 2019, Seattle

 

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30

Aug, 2019

Efavirenz pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and infant washout

 

Authors: Kreitchmann R, Schalkwijk S, Best B, et al.

Published in: Antivir Ther. 2019;24(2):95-103

Background Limited data exist on efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-positive pregnant women and neonatal washout.

Methods HIV-infected pregnant women receiving 600 mg efavirenz once daily had intensive steady-state 24-h pharmacokinetics profiles during the second trimester (2T), third trimester (3T) and 6-12 weeks postpartum (PP). Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were drawn at delivery and neonatal washout pharmacokinetics were determined. Therapeutic targets were the estimated 10th percentile efavirenz area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in non-pregnant historical controls (40.0 μg•h/ml) and a trough concentration (C24 h) of 1 μg/ml. Data were prospectively collected within two trials: IMPAACT P1026s (United States) and PANNA (Europe).

Results Among 42 women studied, 15, 42 and 40 had efavirenz pharmacokinetic data available in 2T, 3T and PP, respectively. Median (range) 3T age 33 (20.7-43.5) years, weight 74 (50-132) kg and gestational age 33.4 (28.4-37.9 weeks). Efavirenz AUC during the 3T (60 μg•h/ml) was similar to that reported in non-pregnant adults (58 μg•h/ml). Exposure in the 2T was lower, but within the 0.80-1.25 range. C24concentrations during pregnancy were lower compared to historical controls on 600 mg efavirenz, however, they were similar to the C24concentrations after equally potent dose of 400 mg efavirenz. Cord blood/maternal plasma concentration ratio (range) was 0.67 (0.36-0.95). Among 23 infants with washout data available, median (interquartile range) elimination half-life was 65.6 h (40.6-129). HIV RNA viral loads at delivery were <400 and <50 copies/ml for 96.7% and 86.7% of women, respectively. In 3T and PP, respectively, 8/41 (19%) and 6/40 (15%) had AUC below target; 7/41 (17%) and 3/39 (8%) had C24 below target.

Conclusions Efavirenz exposure was similar during pregnancy compared with PP, C24 was in line with C24 after 400 mg equipotent efavirenz dosing. Efavirenz readily crossed the placenta and infant elimination half-life was over twice that of maternal participants.

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30

Aug, 2019

Evaluating darunavir/ritonavir dosing regimens for HIV-positive pregnant women using semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic modelling

 

Authors: Schalkwijk S, Ter Heine R, Colbers A, et al.

Published in: J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;30 [Epub ahead of print]

Background Darunavir 800 mg once (q24h) or 600 mg twice (q12h) daily combined with low-dose ritonavir is used to treat HIV-positive pregnant women. Decreased total darunavir exposure (17%-50%) has been reported during pregnancy, but limited data on unbound exposure are available.

Objectives To evaluate total and unbound darunavir exposures following standard darunavir/ritonavir dosing and to explore the value of potential optimized darunavir/ritonavir dosing regimens for HIV-positive pregnant women.

Patients and Methods A population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted based on data from 85 women. The final model was used to simulate total and unbound darunavir AUC0-τ and Ctrough during the third trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess the probability of therapeutic exposure.

Results Simulations predicted that total darunavir exposure (AUC0-τ) was 24% and 23% lower in pregnancy for standard q24h and q12h dosing, respectively. Unbound darunavir AUC0-τ was 5% and 8% lower compared with post-partum for standard q24h and q12h dosing, respectively. The probability of therapeutic exposure (unbound) during pregnancy was higher for standard q12h dosing (99%) than for q24h dosing (94%).

Conclusion The standard q12h regimen resulted in maximal and higher rates of therapeutic exposure compared with standard q24h dosing. Darunavir/ritonavir 600/100 mg q12h should therefore be the preferred regimen during pregnancy unless (adherence) issues dictate q24h dosing. The value of alternative dosing regimens seems limited.

29

Apr, 2019

Incidence of switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy and associated factors in children with HIV: an international cohort collaboration

 

Authors: Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER) Global Cohort Collaboration.

Published in: Lancet HIV. 2019;6(2):e105-e115.

Background Estimates of incidence of switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children with HIV are necessary to inform the need for paediatric second-line formulations. We aimed to quantify the cumulative incidence of switching to second-line ART among children in an international cohort collaboration.

Methods In this international cohort collaboration study, we pooled individual patient-level data for children younger than 18 years who initiated ART (two or more nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors [NRTI] plus a non-NRTI [NNRTI] or boosted protease inhibitor) between 1993 and 2015 from 12 observational cohort networks in the Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER) Global Cohort Collaboration. Patients who were reported to be horizontally infected with HIV and those who were enrolled in trials of treatment monitoring, switching, or interruption strategies were excluded. Switch to second-line ART was defined as change of one or more NRTI plus either change in drug class (NNRTI to protease inhibitor or vice versa) or protease inhibitor change, change from single to dual protease inhibitor, or addition of a new drug class. We used cumulative incidence curves to assess time to switching, and multivariable proportional hazards models to explore patient-level and cohort-level factors associated with switching, with death and loss to follow-up as competing risks.

Findings At the data cutoff of Sept 16, 2015, 182 747 children with HIV were included in the CIPHER dataset, of whom 93 351 were eligible, with 83 984 (90·0%) from sub-Saharan Africa. At ART initiation, the median patient age was 3·9 years (IQR 1·6–6·9) and 82 885 (88·8%) patients initiated NNRTI-based and 10 466 (11·2%) initiated protease inhibitor-based regimens. Median duration of follow-up after ART initiation was 26 months (IQR 9–52). 3883 (4·2%) patients switched to second-line ART after a median of 35 months (IQR 20–57) of ART. The cumulative incidence of switching at 3 years was 3·1% (95% CI 3·0–3·2), but this estimate varied widely depending on the cohort monitoring strategy, from 6·8% (6·5–7·2) in settings with routine monitoring of CD4 (CD4% or CD4 count) and viral load to 0·8% (0·6–1·0) in settings with clinical only monitoring. In multivariable analyses, patient-level factors associated with an increased likelihood of switching were male sex, older age at ART initiation, and initial NNRTI-based regimen (p<0·0001). Cohort-level factors that increased the likelihood of switching were higher-income country (p=0·0017) and routine or targeted monitoring of CD4 and viral load (p<0·0001), which was associated with a 166% increase in likelihood of switching compared with CD4 only monitoring (subdistributional hazard ratio 2·66, 95% CI 2·22–3·19).

Interpretation Our global paediatric analysis found wide variations in the incidence of switching to second-line ART across monitoring strategies. These findings suggest the scale-up of viral load monitoring would probably increase demand for paediatric second-line ART formulations.

29

Apr, 2019

Severe haematologic toxicity is rare in high risk HIV-exposed infants receiving combination neonatal prophylaxis.

 

Authors: European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord

Published in: HIV Med. 2019;20(5):291-307

Objectives Combination neonatal prophylaxis (CNP) is recommended in high‐risk situations for the prevention of mother‐to‐child HIV transmission, although data on its safety are limited. The aim of the study was to identify whether neonatal prophylaxis (NP) type is associated with the risk of severe anaemia or neutropaenia.

Methods An individual patient data meta‐analysis was conducted within six European cohorts, in infants at high risk for acquiring HIV infection. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the risk of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grade 3–4 anaemia/neutropaenia at ages 0–6 months. Mixture models of haemoglobin (Hb) level and log10‐transformed neutrophil count (NC) were used to explore associations with NP type at ages 0–18 months.

Results Of 1836 infants, 25% were preterm, 1149 (63%) had antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure and 395 (22%) received NP (125 received CNP with three drugs). Overall, 117 (6.7%) infants had grade 3–4 anaemia at age 0–6 months and 140 (9.1%) had grade 3–4 neutropaenia. The presence of grade 3–4 anaemia or neutropaenia was not associated with NP type [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.04 for one‐drug NP and 1.60 for three‐drug NP versus two‐drug NP (P = 0.879 and P = 0.277, respectively) for anaemia; aOR 1.33 for one‐drug NP and 1.98 for three‐drug NP versus two‐drug NP (=0.330 and =0.113, respectively) for neutropaenia], but was associated with preterm delivery. Overall, 7746 Hb and NC results were available for 1836 infants up to age 18 months; no significant differences in predicted Hb level or NC were apparent by NP type.

Conclusions A small proportion of infants experienced grade 3–4 haematological adverse events; risk of anaemia or netropenia was not associated with type of NP.

29

Apr, 2019

Prevalence and clinical outcomes of poor immune response despite virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy among children and adolescents with HIV in Europe and Thailand: cohort study

 

Authors: Collins IJ; European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord

Published in: Clin Infect Dis. 2019; 28. pii: ciz253. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz253. [Epub ahead of print]

Background In HIV-positive adults, low CD4 cell counts despite fully suppressed HIV-1 RNA on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We assessed the prevalence and outcomes of poor immune response (PIR) in children on suppressive ART.

Methods Sixteen cohorts from the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) contributed data. Children aged<18 years at ART initiation, with sustained viral suppression (VS) (≤400copies/mL) for ≥1 year were included. The prevalence of PIR (defined as WHO advanced/severe immunosuppression for age: CD4%<30% in children aged<12 months, CD4%<25% in 12-35 months, CD4%<20% in 36-59 months; CD4%<15%/CD4<350 cells/mm3 in ≥5-years) at 1 year of VS was described. Factors associated with PIR were assessed using logistic regression. Rates of AIDS or death on suppressive ART were calculated by PIR status.

Results Of 2318 children included, median age was 6.4 [IQR, 2.1, 10.4] years and 68% had advanced/severe immunosuppression at ART initiation. At 1 year of VS, 12% had PIR. In multivariable analysis, PIR was associated with older age and worse immunological stage at ART start, hepatitis-B coinfection and residing in Thailand (all p≤0.03). Rates of AIDS/death (95% CI) per 100,000 person-years were 1052 (547, 2022) among PIR versus 261 (166, 409) among immune responders; rate ratio of 4.04 (1.83, 8.92), p<0.001.

Conclusions One in eight children in our cohort experienced PIR despite sustained viral suppression. While the overall rate of AIDS/death was low, children with PIR had four-fold increase in risk of event as compared to immune responders.

26

Apr, 2019

Reactivity of routine HIV antibody tests in children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 in England: cross-sectional analysis

 

Authors: Fidler KJ, Foster C, Lim EJ, et al.; for Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study (CHIPS) Steering Committee

Published in: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019;38(2):146-148

Abstract We assessed HIV antibody prevalence in children with perinatally acquired HIV in England. Eighteen percent (10/55) of those starting combination antiretroviral therapy <6 months of age were seronegative at median age 9.1 years and had lower viral load at diagnosis and combination antiretroviral therapy start and fewer viral rebounds, than 45 of 55 seropositives. Implications for patient selection for HIV cure research, and interpretation of routine antibody testing, are discussed.