Zika

26

May, 2020

Clinical outcomes of a Zika virus mother–child pair cohort in Spain

 

Authors: Soriano-Arandes A, Frick MA, García López-Hortelano M, et al.

Published in: Pathogens 2020;9(5):E352

Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with congenital microcephaly and other neurodevelopmental abnormalities. There is little published research on the effect of maternal ZIKV infection in a non-endemic European region. We aimed to describe the outcomes of pregnant travelers diagnosed as ZIKV-infected in Spain, and their exposed children.

Methods: This prospective observational cohort study of nine referral hospitals enrolled pregnant women (PW) who travelled to endemic areas during their pregnancy or the two previous months, or those whose sexual partners visited endemic areas in the previous 6 months. Infants of ZIKV-infected mothers were followed for about two years.

Results: ZIKV infection was diagnosed in 163 PW; 112 (70%) were asymptomatic and 24 (14.7%) were confirmed cases. Among 143 infants, 14 (9.8%) had adverse outcomes during follow-up; three had a congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), and 11 other potential Zika-related outcomes. The overall incidence of CZS was 2.1% (95%CI: 0.4–6.0%), but among infants born to ZIKV-confirmed mothers, this increased to 15.8% (95%CI: 3.4–39.6%).

Conclusions: A nearly 10% overall risk of neurologic and hearing adverse outcomes was found in ZIKV-exposed children born to a ZIKV-infected traveler PW. Longer-term follow-up of these children is needed to assess whether there are any later-onset manifestations.

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17

Apr, 2020

Genomic and epidemiological surveillance of Zika virus in the Amazon region

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Authors: Giovanetti M, Faria NR, Lourenco J, et al.

Published in:  Cell Rep. 2020;30(7):2275-2283

Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused an explosive epidemic linked to severe clinical outcomes in the Americas. As of June 2018, 4,929 ZIKV suspected infections and 46 congenital syndrome cases had been reported in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Although Manaus is a key demographic hub in the Amazon region, little is known about the ZIKV epidemic there, in terms of both transmission and viral genetic diversity. Using portable virus genome sequencing, we generated 59 ZIKV genomes in Manaus. Phylogenetic analyses indi- cated multiple introductions of ZIKV from northeastern Brazil to Manaus. Spatial genomic analysis of virus movement among six areas in Manaus suggested that populous northern neighborhoods acted as sources of virus transmission to other neighborhoods. Our study revealed how the ZIKV epidemic was ignited and maintained within the largest urban metropolis in the Amazon. These results might contribute to improving the public health response to outbreaks in Brazil.

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26

Feb, 2020

Researching Zika in pregnancy: lessons for global preparedness

 

Authors: Ades AE, Thorne C, Soriano-Arandes A, et al.

Published in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 18

Abstract: Our understanding of congenital infections is based on prospective studies of women infected during pregnancy. The EU has funded three consortia to study Zika virus, each including a prospective study of pregnant women. Another multi-centre study has been funded by the US National Institutes of Health. This Personal View describes the study designs required to research Zika virus, and questions whether funding academics in the EU and USA to work with collaborators in outbreak areas is an effective strategy. 3 years after the 2015–16 Zika virus outbreaks, these collaborations have taught us little about vertical transmission of the virus. In the time taken to approve funding, agree contracts, secure ethics approval, and equip laboratories, Zika virus had largely disappeared. By contrast, prospective studies based on local surveillance and standard-of-care protocols have already provided valuable data. Threats to fetal and child health pose new challenges for global preparedness requiring support for the design and implementation of locally appropriate protocols. These protocols can answer the key questions earlier than externally designed studies and at lower cost. Local protocols can also provide a framework for recruitment of unexposed controls that are required to study less specific outcomes. Other priorities include accelerated development of non-invasive tests, and longer-term storage of neonatal and antenatal samples to facilitate retrospective reconstruction of cohort studies.

25

Feb, 2020

Overview and preliminary results of the ZIKAction vertical transmission study in Jamaica

 

Authors: Celia C.

Published in: Oral presentation at 3rd international Conference on Zika Virus and aedes related infections, February 13th – 16th, 2020– Washington DC, USA.

25

Feb, 2020

Trends in Dengue – The Jamaican experience

 

Authors: Webster-Kerr K.

Published in: Oral presentation at 3rd international Conference on Zika Virus and aedes related infections, February 13th – 16th, 2020– Washington DC, USA.

25

Feb, 2020

Severity and outcomes of Dengue in hospitalized children from five hospitals in Jamaica during the 2018-2019 epidemic: is this due to antibody dependent immune enhancement from ZIKA virus exposure?

 

Authors: Lue A.

Published in: Oral presentation at 3rd international Conference on Zika Virus and aedes related infections, February 13th – 16th, 2020– Washington DC, USA.

14

Jan, 2020

Return of the founder Chikungunya virus to its place of introduction into Brazil is revealed by genomic characterization of exanthematic disease cases

 

Authors: Pereira Gusmão Maia Z, Mota Pereira F, do Carmo Said RF, et al.

Published in: Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):53-57

Abstract Between June 2017 and August 2018, several municipalities located in Bahia state (Brazil) reported a large increase in the number of patients presenting with febrile illness similar to that of arboviral infections. Using a combination of portable whole genome sequencing, molecular clock and epidemiological analyses, we revealed the return of the CHIKV-ECSA genotype into Bahia. Our results show local persistence of lineages in some municipalities and the re-introduction of new epidemiological strains from different Brazilian regions, highlighting a complex dynamic of transmission between epidemic seasons and sampled locations. Estimated climate-driven transmission potential of CHIKV remained at similar levels throughout the years, such that large reductions in the total number of confirmed cases suggests a slow, but gradual accumulation of herd-immunity over the 4 years of the epidemic in Bahia after its introduction in 2014. Bahia remains a reservoir of the genetic diversity of CHIKV in the Americas, and genomic surveillance strategies are essential to assist in monitoring and understanding arboviral transmission and persistence both locally and over large distances.

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30

Nov, 2019

Modulated Zika virus NS1 conjugate offers advantages for accurate detection of Zika virus specific antibody in double antigen binding and Ig capture enzyme immunoassays

 

Authors: Tedder RS, Dicks S, Ijaz S, et al.

Published in: PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0215708

Abstract: The accurate diagnosis and seroprevalence investigations of Zika virus (ZKV) infections remain complex due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. Two assay formats, both using labelled Zika virus NS1 antigen as a revealing agent (a double antigen binding assay, DABA, and an immunoglobulin Ig capture assay, G capture) were initially developed and compared with the indirect EuroimmunZ assay for the detection of anti-Zika antibody. Of 147 pre-Zika period serum samples, 39 (27%) were reactive in the EuroimmunZ or the DABA assays, 28 sera concordantly so. Such false reactivity was influenced by the serotype of Dengue virus (DV) to which individuals had been exposed to. Thus, of sera from patients undergoing secondary Dengue virus infection of known serotype, 91%, 45% and 28% of Dengue virus serotype 2, 3 and 4 respectively were reactive in one or more of the three assays. A novel method of quenching false sero-reactivity was therefore developed for the DABA and G capture assays. Initial addition of a single homologous Dengue virus serotype 3 NS1Ag quench significantly ablated false reactivities in the pre-Zika period sera. An equipotent quadrivalent quench comprising homologous Dengue virus serotypes 1 to 4 NS1Ag was shown to be optimum yet retained sensitivity for the detection of specific anti-Zika antibody. Comparing DABA and G capture assays using quenched and unquenched conjugates in comparison with EuroimmunZ early in the course of PCR-confirmed infection indicated that a significant component of the apparent early anti-ZIKA antibody response is likely to be due to a Zika virus-driven anamnestic anti-Dengue virus response. The increased specificity provided by homologous antigen quenching is likely to provide a significant improvement in sero-diagnostics and to be of clinical value.

 

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14

Nov, 2019

Yellow Fever virus reemergence and spread in southeast Brazil, 2016-2019

 

Authors: Giovannetti M, de Mendonca MCL, Fonseca V, et al.

Published in: J Virol. 2019;94(1). pii: e01623-19

Abstract The recent reemergence of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Brazil has raised serious concerns due to the rapid dissemination of the virus in the southeastern region. To better understand YFV genetic diversity and dynamics during the recent outbreak in southeastern Brazil, we generated 18 complete and nearly complete genomes from the peak of the epidemic curve from nonhuman primates (NHPs) and human infected cases across the Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states. Genomic sequencing of 18 YFV genomes revealed the estimated timing, source, and likely routes of yellow fever virus transmission and dispersion during one of the largest outbreaks ever registered in Brazil. We showed that during the recent epidemic, YFV was reintroduced from Minas Gerais to the Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states multiple times between 2016 and 2019. The analysis of data from portable sequencing could identify the corridor of spread of YFV. These findings reinforce the idea that continued genomic surveillance strategies can provide information on virus genetic diversity and transmission dynamics that might assist in understanding arbovirus epidemics.

14

Nov, 2019

Factors predicting the severity of dengue in patients with warning signs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1986–2012)

 

Authors: Goncalves BS, Nogueira RMR, Bispo de Filippis AM, Horta MAP

Published in: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2019;113(11):670-677

Background Since 1981, >12 million cases of dengue have been reported in Brazil. Early prediction of severe dengue with no warning signs is crucial to avoid progression to severe dengue. Here we aimed to identify early markers of dengue severity and characterize dengue infection in patients in Rio de Janeiro.
Methods We evaluated early severity markers, serotypes, infection status, number of days of illness and viral loads associated with dengue fever in patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil through an observational retrospective study (1986–2012). We compared dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue (DWWS/SD). Infection status was classified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and viraemia was quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Results The presence of DWWS/ SD was significantly associated with younger age; patients 13–19 y of age had a significantly greater chance of presenting warning signs. Dengue virus type 3 (DENV3) was more likely to induce DWWS/SD, which was more frequent on days 4–5 of illness.
Conclusions DENV3, 4–5 d of illness and 13–19 y of age were early biomarkers of dengue severity. To our knowledge, this was the first study to analyse the characteristics of dengue severity in the state of Rio de Janeiro over 27 y of epidemics since the introduction of DENV.