Tuberculosis in HIV-infected children in Europe, Thailand and Brazil: paediatric TB-HIV EuroCoord study

Tags: | November 20th, 2016

Authors: Turkova A, Chappell E, Chalermpantmetagul S, et al.

Published in: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2016;20(11):1448-1456.

Setting Centres participating in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA), including Thailand and Brazil.

Objective To describe the incidence, presentation, treatment and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children.

Design Observational study of TB diagnosed in HIV-infected children in 2011–2013.

Results Of 4265 children aged <16 years, 127 (3%) were diagnosed with TB: 6 (5%) in Western Europe, 80 (63%) in Eastern Europe, 27 (21%) in Thailand and 14 (11%) in Brazil, with estimated TB incidence rates of respectively 239, 982, 1633 and 2551 per 100 000 person-years (py). The majority (94%) had acquired HIV perinatally. The median age at TB diagnosis was 6.8 years (interquartile range 3.0–11.5). Over half (52%) had advanced/severe World Health Organization stage immunodeficiency; 67 (53%) were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at TB diagnosis. Preventive anti-tuberculosis treatment was given to 23% (n = 23) of 102 children diagnosed with HIV before TB. Eleven children had unfavourable TB outcomes: 4 died, 5 did not complete treatment, 1 had recurrent TB and 1 had an unknown outcome. In univariable analysis, previous diagnosis of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome, not being virologically suppressed on ART at TB diagnosis and region (Brazil) were significantly associated with unfavourable TB outcomes.

Conclusion Most TB cases were from countries with high TB prevalence. The majority (91%) had favourable outcomes. Universal ART and TB prophylaxis may reduce missed opportunities for TB prevention.