Other viruses

14

Jan, 2020

Return of the founder Chikungunya virus to its place of introduction into Brazil is revealed by genomic characterization of exanthematic disease cases

 

Authors: Pereira Gusmão Maia Z, Mota Pereira F, do Carmo Said RF, et al.

Published in: Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):53-57

Abstract Between June 2017 and August 2018, several municipalities located in Bahia state (Brazil) reported a large increase in the number of patients presenting with febrile illness similar to that of arboviral infections. Using a combination of portable whole genome sequencing, molecular clock and epidemiological analyses, we revealed the return of the CHIKV-ECSA genotype into Bahia. Our results show local persistence of lineages in some municipalities and the re-introduction of new epidemiological strains from different Brazilian regions, highlighting a complex dynamic of transmission between epidemic seasons and sampled locations. Estimated climate-driven transmission potential of CHIKV remained at similar levels throughout the years, such that large reductions in the total number of confirmed cases suggests a slow, but gradual accumulation of herd-immunity over the 4 years of the epidemic in Bahia after its introduction in 2014. Bahia remains a reservoir of the genetic diversity of CHIKV in the Americas, and genomic surveillance strategies are essential to assist in monitoring and understanding arboviral transmission and persistence both locally and over large distances.

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14

Nov, 2019

Yellow Fever virus reemergence and spread in southeast Brazil, 2016-2019

 

Authors: Giovannetti M, de Mendonca MCL, Fonseca V, et al.

Published in: J Virol. 2019;94(1). pii: e01623-19

Abstract The recent reemergence of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Brazil has raised serious concerns due to the rapid dissemination of the virus in the southeastern region. To better understand YFV genetic diversity and dynamics during the recent outbreak in southeastern Brazil, we generated 18 complete and nearly complete genomes from the peak of the epidemic curve from nonhuman primates (NHPs) and human infected cases across the Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states. Genomic sequencing of 18 YFV genomes revealed the estimated timing, source, and likely routes of yellow fever virus transmission and dispersion during one of the largest outbreaks ever registered in Brazil. We showed that during the recent epidemic, YFV was reintroduced from Minas Gerais to the Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states multiple times between 2016 and 2019. The analysis of data from portable sequencing could identify the corridor of spread of YFV. These findings reinforce the idea that continued genomic surveillance strategies can provide information on virus genetic diversity and transmission dynamics that might assist in understanding arbovirus epidemics.

14

Nov, 2019

Factors predicting the severity of dengue in patients with warning signs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1986–2012)

 

Authors: Goncalves BS, Nogueira RMR, Bispo de Filippis AM, Horta MAP

Published in: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2019;113(11):670-677

Background Since 1981, >12 million cases of dengue have been reported in Brazil. Early prediction of severe dengue with no warning signs is crucial to avoid progression to severe dengue. Here we aimed to identify early markers of dengue severity and characterize dengue infection in patients in Rio de Janeiro.
Methods We evaluated early severity markers, serotypes, infection status, number of days of illness and viral loads associated with dengue fever in patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil through an observational retrospective study (1986–2012). We compared dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue (DWWS/SD). Infection status was classified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and viraemia was quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Results The presence of DWWS/ SD was significantly associated with younger age; patients 13–19 y of age had a significantly greater chance of presenting warning signs. Dengue virus type 3 (DENV3) was more likely to induce DWWS/SD, which was more frequent on days 4–5 of illness.
Conclusions DENV3, 4–5 d of illness and 13–19 y of age were early biomarkers of dengue severity. To our knowledge, this was the first study to analyse the characteristics of dengue severity in the state of Rio de Janeiro over 27 y of epidemics since the introduction of DENV.

14

Oct, 2019

Re-introduction of dengue virus serotype 2 in the state of Rio de Janeiro after almost a decade of epidemiological silence

 

Authors: Torres MC, de Bruycker Nogueira F, Fernandes CA, et al.

Published in: PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0225879

Abstract The Asian/American genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) has been introduced in Brazil through the state of Rio de Janeiro around 1990, and since then it has been spreading and evolving, leading to several waves of dengue epidemics throughout the country that cause a major public health problem. Of particular interest has been the epidemic of 2008, whose highest impact was evidenced in the state of Rio de Janeiro, with a higher number of severe cases and mortality rate, compared to previous outbreaks. Interestingly, no circulation of DENV-2 was witnessed in this region during the preceding 9-year period. By early 2010, phylogenetic analysis of the 2008 epidemic strain revealed that the outbreak was caused by a new viral lineage of the Asian/American genotype, which was pointed as responsible for the outbreak severity as well. The same scenario is repeating in 2019 in this state; however, only a few cases have been detected yet. To provide information that helps to the understanding of DENV-2 dynamics in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and thereafter contribute to public health control and prevention actions, we employed phylogenetic studies combined with temporal and dynamics geographical features to determine the origin of the current viral strain. To this effect, we analyzed a region of 1626 nucleotides entailing the Envelope/NS1 viral genes. Our study reveals that the current strain belongs to the same lineage that caused the 2008 outbreak, however, it is phylogenetically distant from any Brazilian strain identified so far. Indeed, it seemed to be originated in Puerto Rico around 2002 and has been introduced into the state in late 2018. Taking into account that no DENV-2 case was reported over the last decade in the state (representing a whole susceptible children generation), and the fact that a new viral strain may be causing current dengue infections, these results will be influential in strengthening dengue surveillance and disease control, mitigating the potential epidemiological consequences of virus spread.

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13

Oct, 2019

Follow-up of children with confirmed perinatal Zika Virus (ZIKV) exposure: the first 2 years-experience in the Costa Rican tertiary pediatric hospital

 

Authors: Brenes-Chacón H, Ávila-Agüero ML, Camacho-Badilla K, Naranjo-Zuñiga G, Benavides-Lara A,  Soriano-Fallas A

Published in: ID Week, Washington DC, October 2nd – 6th 2019

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1

Oct, 2019

Experimental infection of pregnant female sheep with Zika Virus during early gestation

 

Authors: Schwarz ER, Pozor MA, Pu R, et al.

Published in: Viruses. 2019;11(9)

Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vertically and sexually transmissible virus resulting in severe congenital malformation. The goal of this study was to develop an ovine model of ZIKV infection. Between 28–35 days gestation (DG), four pregnant animals were infected with two doses of 6 × 106 PFU of ZIKV; four control animals received PBS. Animals were evaluated for 45 days (D) post-infection (PI) and necropsies were performed. Viral RNA was detected in infected ewe peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during the first week PI; however, all fluids and tissues were negative upon culture. Anti-ZIKV IgM (1:400) and neutralizing antibodies were detected in all infected animals. Clinical disease, virus, or ZIKV antibodies were not detected in control ewes. After two weeks PI, fetal loss occurred in two infected animals, and at necropsy, three infected animals had placental petechiation and ecchymosis and one had hydramnion. Fetal morphometrics revealed smaller cranial circumference to crown-rump length ratios (p < 0.001) and relative brain weights (p = 0.038) in fetuses of infected animals compared with control fetuses. Immunophenotyping indicated an increase in B cells (p = 0.012) in infected sheep. Additionally, in vitro experiments using both adult and fetal cell lines demonstrated that ovine cells are highly permissive to ZIKV infection. In conclusion, ZIKV infection of pregnant sheep results in a change in fetal growth and gestational outcomes.

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1

Oct, 2019

Pregnancy outcomes after maternal Zika virus infection in a non-endemic region: prospective cohort study

 

Authors: Sulleiro E, Rando A, Alejo I, et al.

Published in: Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019;25(5):633.e5-633.e9

Objectives The aim was to describe pregnancy outcomes after Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a non-endemic region.

Methods According to the Spanish protocol issued after the ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015, all pregnant women who had travelled to high-burden countries were screened for ZIKV. Serological and molecular tests were used to identify ZIKV-infected pregnant women. They were classified as confirmed ZIKV infection when reverse transcription (RT) PCR tested positive, or probable ZIKV infection when ZIKV immunoglobulin M and/or immunoglobulin G and ZIKV plaque reduction neutralization tests were positive. Women found positive using molecular or serological tests were prospectively followed-up with ultrasound scans and neurosonograms on a monthly basis until delivery; magnetic resonance imaging and amniotic fluid testing were performed after signed informed consent. Samples of placenta, and fetal and neonatal tissues were obtained.

Results Seventy-two pregnant women tested positive for ZIKV infection: ten were confirmed by RT-PCR, and 62 were probable cases based on serological tests. The prevalence of adverse perinatal outcomes was 33.3% (three out of nine, 95% CI 12.1-64.6%): two cases of congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZS) and one miscarriage, all born to women infected in the first trimester of gestation. All ZIKV-confirmed women had persistent viraemias beyond 2 weeks (median 61.50 days; IQR 35.50-80.75). Amniotic fluid testing was only positive in the two fetuses with anomalies.

Conclusions The prevalence of perinatal adverse outcomes for women with ZIKV-confirmed infection was 33.3%. Amniocentesis for ZIKV RT-PCR is recommended when fetal abnormalities are found. Intensive prenatal and postnatal follow-up of ZIKV-infected pregnancies is advised in confirmed cases.

1

Oct, 2019

Screening for Zika virus infection in 1057 potentially exposed pregnant women, Catalonia (northeastern Spain)

 

Authors: Sulleiro E, Rando A, Alejo I, et al.

Published in: Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019;29:69-71

No abstract available

1

Oct, 2019

Development of secondary microcephaly after delivery: possible consequence of mother-baby transmission of Zika Virus in breast milk

 

Authors: Siqueira Mello A, Pascalicchio Bertozzi APA, Rodrigues MMD, et al.

Published in: Am J Case Rep. 2019 May 21;20:723-725

Background The Zika virus is an arbovirus that has as main source of transmission the bite of infected insects of the genus Aedes and has been associated with cases of congenital malformation and microcephaly in neonates. However, other sources of transmission have been identified since the emergence of this virus in the world population, such as vertical transmission by semen and possibly other body fluids such as vaginal secretion and breast milk.
Case Report An infant, born to a mother whose previous delivery was a baby with severe microcephaly, was normal and was negative for Zika virus at birth but developed secondary microcephaly 1 month later, that persisted. The baby was exclusively breast-fed and Zika virus was present in the mother’s milk.
Conclusions We report the detection of Zika virus exclusively in the breast milk of a woman after her second delivery of an infant, who later developed microcephaly. This case is consistent with possible vertical transmission.

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1

Oct, 2019

Detection of Zika virus in paired urine and amniotic fluid samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic women and their babies during a disease outbreak: association with neurological symptoms in newborns

 

Authors: Vedovello D, Witkin SS, Silva ACB, et al.

Published in: J Neurovirol 2019 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s13365-019-00797-0

Abstract Paired maternal and newborn urine and amniotic fluid from 138 subjects collected during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak was analyzed for ZIKV by gene amplification (RT-qPCR), and the findings were correlated with clinical symptoms and neurological anomalies in the babies. ZIKV was detected in 1 of 9 symptomatic women (11.1%) and in 19 of 129 asymptomatic women (14.7%). Neurological manifestations were present in 19 babies (13.7%), 10 of 20 (50%) positive and 9 of 119 (7.6%) negative (p < 0.001) for ZIKV. Twelve (8.6%) urines collected during gestation were ZIKV-positive; only 2 remained positive for ZIKV postpartum. Six (4.1%) newborn urines collected within 1 day of delivery were ZIKV-positive cases. In 3 of these cases, ZIKV was detected in mother’s urine pre- and postpartum and in both mother’s urine and babies’ urine. Four of the amniotic fluid samples (2.9%) were ZIKV-positive. Among ZIKV-negative babies with neurological sequel, 87.5% were female; in contrast, 72.7% ZIKV-positive babies with neurological abnormalities were male (p = 0.019). We conclude that during a ZIKV outbreak, clinical symptoms and ZIKV detection in biological fluids are poor predictors of infection and adverse neurologic sequel in newborns.

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