Authors: Germovesk E, Lutsar I, Kipepr K, et al.; for NeoMero Consortium
Published in: J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018;73(7):1908-1916
Background Sepsis and bacterial meningitis are major causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates and infants. Meropenem a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is not licensed for use in neonates and infants below 3 months of age and sufficient information on its plasma and CSF disposition and dosing in neonates and infants is lacking.
Authors: Tacconelli E, Sifakis F, Harbarth S, et al; for EPI-Net COMBACTE-MAGNET Group
Published in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18(3):e99-e106.
Abstract Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health and the provision of health care. Its surveillance should provide up-to-date and relevant information to monitor the appropriateness of therapy guidelines, antibiotic formulary, antibiotic stewardship programmes, public health interventions,
Authors: Donà D, Zingarella S, Gastaldi A, et al.
Published in: PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0193581.
Background Italian pediatric antimicrobial prescription rates are among the highest in Europe. As a first step in an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, we implemented a Clinical Pathway (CP) for Community Acquired Pneumonia with the aim of decreasing overall prescription of antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum.
Materials and Methods The CP was implemented on 10/01/2015.
Authors: Chiappini E, Galli L, Lisi C, et al.
Published in: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018;79(1):54-61.
Background Strategies for prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) have been continuously optimized. However, cases of vertical transmission continue to occur in high-income countries.
Objectives To investigate changes in PMTCT strategies adopted by Italian clinicians over time and to evaluate risk factors for transmission.
Authors: Mallewa J, Szubert AJ, Mugyenyi P, et al.
Published in: Lancet HIV. 2018;5(5):e231-e240
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, severely immunocompromised HIV-infected individuals have a high risk of mortality during the first few months after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesise that universally providing ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) would increase early weight gain, thereby reducing early mortality compared with current guidelines recommending ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) for severely malnourished individuals only.
Authors: Kityo C, Szubert AJ, Siika A, et al.
Published in: PLoS Med. 2018; 15(12):e1002706
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, individuals infected with HIV who are severely immunocompromised have high mortality (about 10%) shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). This group also has the greatest risk of morbidity and mortality associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS),
Authors: Post FA, Szubert AJ, Prendergast AJ, et al; for Reduction of early mortality in HIV-infected adults and children starting an antiretroviral therapy (REALITY) trial team
Published in: Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(2):S132-S139
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, 20%-25% of people starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) have severe immunosuppression; approximately 10% die within 3 months. In the Reduction of EArly mortaLITY (REALITY) randomized trial,
Authors: Siika A, McCabe L, Bwakura-Dangarembizi M, et al; for REALITY Trial Team
Published in: Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(2):S140-S146
Background Severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals have high mortality shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated predictors of early mortality and “late presenter” phenotypes.
Methods The Reduction of EArly MortaLITY (REALITY) trial enrolled ART-naive adults and children ≥5 years of age with CD4 counts <100 cells/μL initiating ART in Uganda,
Authors: Favarato G, Bailey H, Burns F, et al.
Published in: Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(1):55-60
Authors: European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) Study Group in EuroCoord.
Published in: Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(4):594-603.
Background Global data on durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children with HIV is limited. We assessed time to switch to second-line therapy in 16 European countries and Thailand.
Methods Children <18-years initiating combination ART (≥2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) plus non-NRTI (NNRTI) or boosted-protease inhibitor (PI)) were included.
Authors: Soriano-Arandes A, Rivero-Calle I, Nastouli E, et al.
Published in: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018;16(3):243-254
Introduction: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused the most challenging worldwide infectious epidemic outbreak in recent months. ZIKV causes microcephaly and other congenital malformations. There is a need to perform updated systematic reviews on ZIKV infection periodically because this epidemic is bringing up new evidence with extraordinary speed.
Authors: Zangari P, Palma P, Cotugno N, et al.
Published in: J Virus Erad.2018;4: 51–54
Abstract: The first EPIICAL General Assembly meeting was held in an atmosphere of growing optimism. Many novel and exciting proposals for HIV research studies were discussed and are described above. The consortium aims to maintain this integrated developmental research on NDMTs,
Authors: Rinaldi S, Cotugno N, Pallikkuth S, Palma P, Pahwa S; on behalf of the EPIICAL Consortium
Published: 8th Conference on HIV Persistence
Background Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in vertically HIV-infected children provides an opportunity to limit the size of reservoir, but whether and how the time of ART treatment initiation can durably impact host immune responses associated with HIV infection is still unknown.
Authors: Luck SE, Wieringa JW, Blazquez-Gamero D, et al.
Published in: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36(12):1205-1213
Authors: European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord.
Published in: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;73(4):463-468
Background Zidovudine (ZDV) has been associated with risk of haematological toxicity. Safety data from clinical trials is generally limited to 48 weeks. We assessed the short- and mid-term toxicity of ZDV/lamivudine (3TC) fixed-dose combination scored tablets in HIV-infected children followed in the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) network.
Authors: Bernays S, Paparini S, Seeley J, Namukwaya Kihika S, Gibb D, Rhodes T.
Published in: BMJ Open. 2017;7(2):e012934
Objectives A qualitative study of the BREATHER (PENTA 16) randomised clinical trial, which compared virological control of Short Cycle Therapy (SCT) (5 days on: 2 days off) with continuous efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (CT) in children and young people (aged 8–24) living with HIV with viral load <50 c/mL to examine adaptation,
Authors: Namukwaya S, Paparini S, Seeley J, Bernays S.
Published in: Front Public Health. 2017;5:343.
Abstract: Despite great advances in pediatric HIV care, rates and the extent of full disclosure of HIV status to infected children remain low especially in resource-constrained setting. The World Health Organisation recommends that, by the age of 10-12 years old,
Authors: Hakim J, Musiime V, Szubert AJ; REALITY Trial Team
Published in: N Engl J Med. 2017;377(3):233-245
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%.
Methods In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda,
Authors: Theys K, Libin P, Dallmeier K, et al.
Published in: PLoS Pathog. 2017;13(9):e1006528
In this letter, the authors address the need for curation and standardized annotation of ZIKV reference genomes in order to guide researchers and clinicians in genomic analyses and the translation of research findings.
Authors: James-Powell T, Brown Y, Christie CDC, et al.
Published in: West Indian Med J, 2017; 66:10-19
Authors: Halai UA, Nielsen-Saines K, Moreira ME, et al.
Published in: Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(6):877-883
Authors: Sáfadi MA, Nascimento-Carvalho CM
Published in: Pediatr Infect Dis J.2017;36(3):333-336
Abstract After remaining related to few sporadic cases in limited regions for more than half century since its discovery, Zika virus (ZIKV) was recently introduced into the Western Hemisphere, first in Brazil and then spreading very rapidly in the Americas. Unexpectedly, an increased incidence of microcephaly and other neurologic malformations in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV during pregnancy was reported in Brazil,
Authors: Garcez PP, Nascimento JM, de Vasconcelos JM, et al.
Published in: Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 23;7:40780
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with microcephaly and other brain abnormalities; however, the molecular consequences of ZIKV to human brain development are still not fully understood. Here we describe alterations in human neurospheres derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells infected with the strain of Zika virus that is circulating in Brazil.
Authors: Sacramento CQ, de Melo GR, de Freitas CS, et al.
Published in: Sci Rep.2017 Jan 18;7: 40920
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, along with other agents of clinical significance such as dengue (DENV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. Since ZIKV causes neurological disorders during fetal development and in adulthood,
Authors: Gaskell KM, Houlihan C, Nastouli E, Checkly AM
Published in: Emerg Infect Dis.2017;23(1):137-139
Abstract Zika virus is normally transmitted by mosquitos, but cases of sexual transmission have been reported. We describe a patient with symptomatic Zika virus infection in whom the virus was detected in semen for 92 days. Our findings support recommendations for 6 months of barrier contraceptive use after symptomatic Zika virus infection.
Authors: Melbourne-Chambers R., Christie CD, Greenaway E., Bullock R
Published in: West Indian Med J.2016;65(3):425-430
Abstract Dengue, Chikungunya Fever (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are all transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and are currently circulating in Jamaica. Jamaica has been experiencing a ZIKV epidemic since February 2016. At the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI),
Authors: Iovine NM, Lednicky J, Cherabuddi K, et al.
Published in: Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(1): 72–75.
Abstract Zika virus and dengue virus serotype 2 were isolated from a patient with travel to Haiti who developed fever, rash, arthralgias, and conjunctivitis. The infecting Zika virus was related to Venezuelan and Brazilian strains but evolved along a lineage originating from strains isolated in 2014 in the same region of Haiti.
Authors: Fuller TL, Calvet G, Genaro Estevam C, et al.
Published in: PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0188002
Abstract: The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV).
Authors: Donà D, Luise D, Da Dalt L, Giaquinto C.
Published in: Int J Pediatr; 2017: 4239268.
Abstract: Background. Pneumonia represents an important threat to children’s health in both developed and developing countries. In the last 10 years, many national and international guidelines on the treatment of pediatric CAP have been published,
Authors: Schalkwijk S, Colbers A, Konopnicki D, et al.
Published in: Clin Infect Dis. 2017; 65(8):1335-1341.
Authors: Judd A, Lodwick R, Noguera-Julian A, et al.. Pursuing Later Treatment Options II (PLATO II) Project Team for the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) in EuroCoord.
Published in: HIV Med. 2017;18(3):171-180
Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for,
Authors: Nelson B, Melbourne-Chambers R, Christie CDC
Published in: West Indian Med J. Published Online: December 20, 2017
Abstract Zika Virus is neurotropic. We report two children from the Caribbean island of Grenada, a three-year-old with acute neuro-inflammation who had intractable seizures, meningo-encephalitis, CSF pleocytosis and Zika IgM positive acute serology and a four-year-old with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis manifesting as generalized seizures,
Authors: Schwarz ER
Published in: Curr Opin Virol. 2017;27:71-77
Abstract Measles, mumps, and rubella have recently taken the stage as re-emerging diseases of public health importance-particularly in regards to the consequences seen with perinatal infections. Effective vaccination strategies have successfully reduced the spread of measles, mumps, and rubella in the United States, but a current trend of increased vaccination hesitancy,
Authors: da Silva IRF, Frontera JA, Bispo de Filippis AM, Nascimento OJMD
Published in: JAMA Neurol.2017;74(10):1190-1198
Importance There are no prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence and spectrum of neurologic manifestations secondary to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in adults.
Objective To evaluate the rates of acute ZIKV infection among patients hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS),
Authors: Bosch I, de Puig H, Hiley M, et al.
Published in: Sci Transl Med. 2017 Sep 27;9(409)
Abstract The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak demonstrates that cost-effective clinical diagnostics are urgently needed to detect and distinguish viral infections to improve patient care. Unlike dengue virus (DENV), ZIKV infections during pregnancy correlate with severe birth defects,
Authors: Barreto-Vieira DF, Jacome FC, da Silva MAN, et al.
Published in: PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0184397
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the flavivirus genus, and its genome is approximately 10.8 kilobases of positive-strand RNA enclosed in a capsid and surrounded by a membrane. Studies on the replication dynamics of ZIKV are scarce,
Authors: Balmaseda A, Stettler K, Medialdea-Carrera R, et al.
Published in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(31):8384-8389
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged recently as a global health threat, causing a pandemic in the Americas. ZIKV infection mostly causes mild disease, but is linked to devastating congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults.
Authors: Braga JU, Bressan C, Dalvi APR, et al.
Published in: PLoS One.2017;12(6):e0179725.
Background Zika is a new disease in the American continent and its surveillance is of utmost importance, especially because of its ability to cause neurological manifestations as Guillain-Barrésyndrome and serious congenital malformations through vertical transmission. The detection of suspected cases by the surveillance system depends on the case definition adopted.
Authors: Nascimento OJM, Frontera JA, Amitrano DA, Bispo de Filippis AM, Da Silva IRF; RIO-GBS-ZIKV Research Group
Published in: Neurology 2017;88(24):2330-2332
Authors: Palma P, Chan M, Goodall R, Judd A, Gibb D, Babiker A, Rojo P.
Published: 35th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID), May 23rd-27th May, 2017, Madrid
Background A major obstacle to curing HIV infection is persistence of virus as integrated proviral DNA in long-lived cells even after many years on ART.
Authors: Palma P, Zangari P, Cotugno N, Rocca S, Nastouli E, McCoy LE, Ferns RB, Pahwa S, Rossi P
Published: 24th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, February 13th – 16th, 2017, Seattle. P_1975.
Background It is still unknown whether the paucity of HIV-specific immune responses in early-treated (treated within 6 months of age; ET) HIV-infected children may represent a limitation or an advantage in the perspective of immune therapeutic studies.
Authors: Colbers A, Schalkwijk S, Konopnicki D, Gingelmaier A, Lambert J, van der Ende I, Moltó J, Burger D.
Published: 24th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, February 13th – 16th, 2017 – Seattle. Abstract number 754.
Authors: Bernays S, Paparini S, Seeley J, Rhodes T.
Published in: Med Anthropol. 2017;36(5):485-499.
Abstract: Global health priorities are being set to address questions on adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy in adolescence. Few studies have explored young people’s perspectives on the complex host of social and relational challenges they face in dealing with their treatment in secret and their condition in silence.
Authors: Schomaker M, Leroy V, Wolfs T, et al. On behalf of theIeDEA West and Southern Africa regional collaborations and COHERE in EuroCoord.
Published in: Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46(2):453-465.
Background: There is limited knowledge about the optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in older children and adolescents.
Methods: A total of 20 576 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients,
Authors: Volynets G, Skyortsowa TA, Ptapov AS, et al.
Published in: EASL, 19th – 23rd April 2017, Amsterdam
Authors: Thorne C, Turkova A, Indolfi G, Venturini E, Giaquinto C
Published in: AIDS. 2017;31(1):127-135.
Objective To characterize children, adolescents and young adults infected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertically or before age of 18 years and living in Europe regarding mode of acquisition, HCV genotype, clinical status and treatment.
Authors: Majekodunmi AO, Thorne C, Malyuta R, et al.
Published in: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36(5):e123-e129
Objective To compare CD4 T cell recovery in HIV/HCV coinfected children with recovery in HIV monoinfected children.
Authors: Indolfi G, Thorne C, El-Sayed MH, Giaquinto C, Gonzalez-Peralta RP.
Published in: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(6):851-854
Abstract The development of oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has revolutionized the therapeutic field. Nowadays, multiple safe and highly effective antiviral regimens are commercially available to treat adults with hepatitis C infection.
Published in: Pediatr Infect Dis J.
Authors: Colbers A, Best B, Schalkwijk S, et al. PANNA Network and the IMPAACT 1026 Study Team.
Published in: Clin Pharmacokinet. 2016;55(3):381-96
Abstract Pregnant women are usually excluded from clinical trials. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling may provide a method to predict pharmacokinetics in pregnant women, without the need to perform extensive in vivo clinical trials.