Markers of HIV reservoir size in infected children on long-term viral control


Authors: Rinaldi S, Pallikkuth S, de Armas L, Pahwa R, Dominguez S, Cotugno N, Rojo Conejo P, Nastouli E, Gartner K, Klein N, Foster C, De Rossi A, Carlo Giaquinto C, Rossi P, Palma P, Pahwa S and EPIICAL Consortium

Published in:  27th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, March 8th –11th, 2020 – Boston.

Viral response in HIV infected infants starting ART at 1 month in Southern Mozambique


Authors: Lain MG, Vaz P, Ismael N,  Cantarutti A, Porcu G, Palma P, Cotugno N, Bila D, Rinaldi S,  Pallikkuth S, Pahwa R, Taibo E, Esmeralda Karajeanes E, Giaquinto C, Pahwa S.

Published in:  27th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, March 8th –11th, 2020 – Boston.

ushr: Understanding suppression of HIV in R


Authors: Morris SE, Dziobek-Garrett L, Yates AJ and the EPIICAL consortium

Published in: BMC Bioinformatics 2020;21(1):52

Background HIV/AIDS is responsible for the deaths of one million people every year. Although mathematical modeling has provided many insights into the dynamics of HIV infection, there is still a lack of accessible tools for researchers unfamiliar with modeling techniques to apply them to their own clinical data.

Researching Zika in pregnancy: lessons for global preparedness


Authors: Ades AE, Thorne C, Soriano-Arandes A, et al.

Published in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 18

Abstract: Our understanding of congenital infections is based on prospective studies of women infected during pregnancy. The EU has funded three consortia to study Zika virus, each including a prospective study of pregnant women.

Overview and preliminary results of the ZIKAction vertical transmission study in Jamaica


Authors: Celia C.

Published in: Oral presentation at 3rd international Conference on Zika Virus and aedes related infections, February 13th – 16th, 2020– Washington DC, USA.

Trends in Dengue – The Jamaican experience


Authors: Webster-Kerr K.

Published in: Oral presentation at 3rd international Conference on Zika Virus and aedes related infections, February 13th – 16th, 2020– Washington DC, USA.

Severity and outcomes of Dengue in hospitalized children from five hospitals in Jamaica during the 2018-2019 epidemic: is this due to antibody dependent immune enhancement from ZIKA virus exposure?


Authors: Lue A.

Published in: Oral presentation at 3rd international Conference on Zika Virus and aedes related infections, February 13th – 16th, 2020– Washington DC, USA.

Early ART-treated perinatally HIV-infected seronegative children demonstrate distinct long-term persistence of HIV-specific T and B cell memory


Authors: Cotugno N, Morrocchi E, Rinaldi S, et al; EPIICAL Consortium.

Published in: AIDS. 2020 Feb 3.

Objective To investigate long-term persistence of HIV-specific lymphocyte immunity in perinatally HIV-infected children treated within the first year of life.

Design Twenty perinatally HIV-infected children who received ART therapy within the first year of life (early treated) and with stable viral control (>5 years) were grouped according to their serological response to HIV.

Impact of early antiretroviral therapy initiation on HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell function in perinatally infected children


Authors: Rinaldi S, Pallikkuth S, Cameron M, et al.

Published in: J Immunol. 2020 Feb 1;204:540-549

Abstract Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in vertically HIV-infected children limits the size of the virus reservoir, but whether the time of treatment initiation (TI) can durably impact host immune responses associated with HIV infection is still unknown.

Etiology and outcome of Candidemia in neonates and children in Europe: an 11-year multinational retrospective study


Authors: Warris A, Pana ZD, Oletto A, et al. EUROCANDY study group.

Published in: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(2):114-120

Background Data on Candida bloodstream infections in pediatric patients in Europe are limited. We performed a retrospective multicenter European study of the epidemiology and outcome of neonatal and pediatric candidemia.

Materials and methods All first positive blood cultures from patients ≤ 18 years of age with candidemia were registered.

Return of the founder Chikungunya virus to its place of introduction into Brazil is revealed by genomic characterization of exanthematic disease cases


Authors: Pereira Gusmão Maia Z, Mota Pereira F, do Carmo Said RF, et al.

Published in: Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):53-57

Abstract Between June 2017 and August 2018, several municipalities located in Bahia state (Brazil) reported a large increase in the number of patients presenting with febrile illness similar to that of arboviral infections.

Implementation and impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs: a systematic scoping review


Authors: Donà D, Barbieri E, Daverio M, Lundin R, Giaquinto C, Zaoutis T, Sharland M

Published in: Antimicrob Resist Infect Control.2020;9:3

Background Antibiotics are the most common medicines prescribed to children in hospitals and the community, with a high proportion of potentially inappropriate use. Antibiotic misuse increases the risk of toxicity, raises healthcare costs, and selection of resistance.

PD-1+ CD4 T cells are associated with HIV reservoir size and impaired function of T follicular helper cells in children and young adults on long-term viral control


Authors: S. Rinaldi, V. Dinh, S. Pallikkuth, L. De Armas, R. Pahwa, N. Cotugno, E. Nastouli, C. Foster, P. Palma, S. Pahwa

Published in: Poster presented at 9th International Workshop on HIV Persistence during Therapy; December, 2019; Miami, FL

Background: Curative strategies for HIV will need to eliminate the replication competent latent reservoir.

Standardising neonatal and pediatric anitibiotic clinical trial design and conduct: the PENTA-ID network review


Authors: Folgori L, Lutsar I, Standing JF, et al.

Published in: BMJ Open. 2019; 9:e032592

Abstract: Antimicrobial development for children remains challenging due to multiple barriers to conducting randomised clinical trials (CTs). There is currently considerable heterogeneity in the design and conduct of paediatric antibiotic studies, hampering comparison and meta-analytic approaches.

Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and cranial ultrasonography in congenital Cytomegalovirus infection


Authors: Blazquez-Gamero D, Soriano-Ramos M, Martinez de Aragon A, et al.

Published in: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019;38(11):1131-1137

Modulated Zika virus NS1 conjugate offers advantages for accurate detection of Zika virus specific antibody in double antigen binding and Ig capture enzyme immunoassays


Authors: Tedder RS, Dicks S, Ijaz S, et al.

Published in: PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0215708

Abstract: The accurate diagnosis and seroprevalence investigations of Zika virus (ZKV) infections remain complex due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. Two assay formats, both using labelled Zika virus NS1 antigen as a revealing agent (a double antigen binding assay,

Analysing small groups within clinical trials, while borrowing information from larger groups


Authors: Turner B, Ford D, Moore C, Gibb D, Turkova A,  White I, and ODYSSEY trial team

Published in: Oral Presentation atInternational Society for Clinical Biostatics; July 16th 2019

Yellow Fever virus reemergence and spread in southeast Brazil, 2016-2019


Authors: Giovannetti M, de Mendonca MCL, Fonseca V, et al.

Published in: J Virol. 2019;94(1). pii: e01623-19

Abstract The recent reemergence of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Brazil has raised serious concerns due to the rapid dissemination of the virus in the southeastern region. To better understand YFV genetic diversity and dynamics during the recent outbreak in southeastern Brazil,

Factors predicting the severity of dengue in patients with warning signs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1986–2012)


Authors: Goncalves BS, Nogueira RMR, Bispo de Filippis AM, Horta MAP

Published in: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2019;113(11):670-677

Background Since 1981, >12 million cases of dengue have been reported in Brazil. Early prediction of severe dengue with no warning signs is crucial to avoid progression to severe dengue. Here we aimed to identify early markers of dengue severity and characterize dengue infection in patients in Rio de Janeiro.

Reduced time to suppression among neonates with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy within 7 days of age


Authors: Domínguez-Rodríguez S, Tagarro A. Palma P, et al.

Published in: JAIDS 2019;82(5):483-490

Abstract There are limited data on infants with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the neonatal period. We investigated the association between the timing of ART initiation and time-to-suppression among infants who tested HIV-positive and initiated ART within the first 28 days of life.

Time to HIV suppression in perinatally infected infants depends on the viral load and CD4 T-cell percentage at the start of treatment


Authors: Schröter J.

Published in: Poster presented at 4th Workshop on Virus Dynamics, October 21st-23rd, 2019 -Paris, FR

Towards understanding global patterns of antimicrobial use and resistance in neonatal sepsis: insights from the NeoAMR network


Authors: Li G, Bielicki JA, Ahmed ASMNU, et al.

Published in: Arch Dis Child.2091;0:1-6

Objective To gain an understanding of the variation in available resources and clinical practices between neonatal units (NNUs) in the low-income and middleincome country (LMIC) setting to inform the design of an observational study on the burden of unit-level antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

Differential susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms to vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid between clinical Isolates from neonates and adults


Authors:Simitsopoulou M, Kadiltzoglou P, Kyrpitzi D, Roilides E.

Published in: Int J Biol Med Res.2019;10(1):6591-6596

Abstract This study aimed to compare the effects of vancomycin, linezolid and daptomycin against planktonic cells and biofilms of 32 bloodstream isolates derived from neonates and adults of three hospitals. Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation was spectrophotometrically assessed following safranin staining.

Population pharmacokinetic meta-analysis of individual data to design the first randomized efficacy trial of vancomycin in neonates and young infants


Authors: Jacqz-Aigrain E, Leroux S, Thomson AH, et al.

Published in: J Antimicrob Ther 2019; 74(8):2128-2138

Re-introduction of dengue virus serotype 2 in the state of Rio de Janeiro after almost a decade of epidemiological silence


Authors: Torres MC, de Bruycker Nogueira F, Fernandes CA, et al.

Published in: PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0225879

Abstract The Asian/American genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) has been introduced in Brazil through the state of Rio de Janeiro around 1990, and since then it has been spreading and evolving, leading to several waves of dengue epidemics throughout the country that cause a major public health problem.

Follow-up of children with confirmed perinatal Zika Virus (ZIKV) exposure: the first 2 years-experience in the Costa Rican tertiary pediatric hospital


Authors: Brenes-Chacón H, Ávila-Agüero ML, Camacho-Badilla K, Naranjo-Zuñiga G, Benavides-Lara A,  Soriano-Fallas A

Published in: ID Week, Washington DC, October 2nd – 6th 2019

Detection of very low levels of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA in well suppressed adolescents (CARMA study)


Authors: Gärtner K, Gkouleli T, Heaney J, et al; on behalf of the EPIICAL consortium

Published: Poster presented at HIV Cure and Reservoir Symposium, September, 16th-20th, 2019 -Ghent, BE

Experimental infection of pregnant female sheep with Zika Virus during early gestation


Authors: Schwarz ER, Pozor MA, Pu R, et al.

Published in: Viruses. 2019;11(9)

Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vertically and sexually transmissible virus resulting in severe congenital malformation. The goal of this study was to develop an ovine model of ZIKV infection. Between 28–35 days gestation (DG), four pregnant animals were infected with two doses of 6 × 106 PFU of ZIKV;

Pregnancy outcomes after maternal Zika virus infection in a non-endemic region: prospective cohort study


Authors: Sulleiro E, Rando A, Alejo I, et al.

Published in: Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019;25(5):633.e5-633.e9

Objectives The aim was to describe pregnancy outcomes after Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a non-endemic region.

Methods According to the Spanish protocol issued after the ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015, all pregnant women who had travelled to high-burden countries were screened for ZIKV.

Screening for Zika virus infection in 1057 potentially exposed pregnant women, Catalonia (northeastern Spain)


Authors: Sulleiro E, Rando A, Alejo I, et al.

Published in: Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019;29:69-71

No abstract available

Development of secondary microcephaly after delivery: possible consequence of mother-baby transmission of Zika Virus in breast milk


Authors: Siqueira Mello A, Pascalicchio Bertozzi APA, Rodrigues MMD, et al.

Published in: Am J Case Rep. 2019 May 21;20:723-725

Background The Zika virus is an arbovirus that has as main source of transmission the bite of infected insects of the genus Aedes and has been associated with cases of congenital malformation and microcephaly in neonates.

Detection of Zika virus in paired urine and amniotic fluid samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic women and their babies during a disease outbreak: association with neurological symptoms in newborns


Authors: Vedovello D, Witkin SS, Silva ACB, et al.

Published in: J Neurovirol 2019 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s13365-019-00797-0

Abstract Paired maternal and newborn urine and amniotic fluid from 138 subjects collected during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak was analyzed for ZIKV by gene amplification (RT-qPCR), and the findings were correlated with clinical symptoms and neurological anomalies in the babies.

The challenge of the laboratory diagnosis in a confirmed congenital Zika virus syndrome in utero: a case report


Authors: Sulleiro E, Frick MA, Rodó C, et al.

Published in: Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(20):e15532

Introduction Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused one of the most challenging global infectious epidemics in recent years because of its causal association with severe microcephaly and other congenital malformations. The diagnosis of viral infections usually relies on the detection of virus proteins or genetic material in clinical samples as well as on the infected host immune responses.

Non-inferiority double-blind randomised controlled trial comparing gabapentin versus tramadol for the treatment of chronic neuropathic or mixed pain in children and adolescents: the GABA-1 trial-a study protocol


Authors: Kaguelidou F, Le Roux E, Mangiarini L, et al.; GAPP consortium

Published in: BMJ Open. 2019;9(2):e023296

Introduction Gabapentin is currently used ‘off-label’ in children and adolescents with chronic neuropathic pain, and reliable evidence of its effects and optimal dosing are lacking.

Objectives The GABA-1 trial aims to compare the efficacy and safety of gabapentin liquid formulation relative to tramadol and to explore the pharmacokinetics of both drugs in the treatment of chronic,

Gabapentin as add-on to morphine for severe neuropathic or mixed pain in children from age 3 months to 18 years – evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a new gabapentin liquid formulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial


Authors: de Leeuw TG, Mangiarini L, Lundin R, et al; GAPP consortium

Published in: Trials. 2019; 20(1):368

Background Gabapentin has shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic neuropathic or mixed pain in adults. Although pediatric pain specialists have extensive experience with gabapentin for the treatment of neuropathic pain, its use is off-label. Its efficacy and safety in this context have never been shown.

Pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir 5mg dispersible tablets in children weighing 6 to <20kg dosed using WHO weight bands


Authors: Waalewijn H, Bollen PDJ, Moore C, Kekitiinwa A, et al. The ODYSSEY Trail Team

Published in: Oral Presentation at 10th IAS Conference, July, 21-24th 2019

Follow up of Children with Confirmed Perinatal Zika Virus (ZIKV) Exposure: The First 2 years-experience in the Costa Rican Tertiary Pediatric Hospital


Authors: Tedder RS, Dicks S, Ijaz S, et al.

Published in: PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0215708

Abstract The accurate diagnosis and seroprevalence investigations of Zika virus (ZKV) infections remain complex due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. Two assay formats, both using labelled Zika virus NS1 antigen as a revealing agent (a double antigen binding assay,

Past and future spread of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus


Authors: Kraemer MUG, Reiner RC Jr, Brady OJ, et al.

Published in: Nat Microbiol. 2019;4:900

Abstract The global population at risk from mosquito-borne diseases—including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika—is expanding in concert with changes in the distribution of two key vectors: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The distribution of these species is largely driven by both human movement and the presence of suitable climate.

The CARMA Study: Children on early suppressive ART Total HIV-1 DNA quantitation 12 years post ART initiation


Authors: Foster C, Dominguez S, Tagarro A, Nastouli E, Gkouleli R, Heaney J, PalmaP, Rossi P, Giaquinto C, Rojo P

Published: 10th IAS Conference on HIV Science, July 21rd-24th 2019, Mexico City

Background Future strategies aimed at achieving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission are likely to target individuals with a limited size of viral reservoir.

Comparison of qPCR and dPCR methods to investigate the latent HIV reservoir in a paediatric population with long viral suppression on therapy


Authors: Heaney J, Busby E, Gärtner K, Grant P, Spyer MJ, O’Sullivan DM, Gkouleli T, Marcelin AG, Pillay D, Foster C, Rojo P, Palma P, Muñoz Fernández MA, deRossi A, Huggett JF, Nastouli E

Published: International Workshop on HIV Pediatrics, July 19th-20th, 2019. P_102

Background Despite effective antiretroviral therapy(ART), HIV persists as integrated provirus generating latent viral reservoirs even in the absence of detectable plasma viremia.

Understanding the relation between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse fetal, infant and child outcomes: a protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of pregnant women and their infants and children


Authors: Wilder-Smith A, Wei Y, Araújo TVB et al;Zika Virus Individual Participant Data Consortium

Published in: BMJ Open. 2019;9(6):e026092. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026092.

Introduction Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is a known cause of microcephaly and other congenital and developmental anomalies. In the absence of a ZIKV vaccine or prophylactics, principal investigators (PIs) and international leaders in ZIKV research have formed the ZIKV Individual Participant Data (IPD) Consortium to identify,

Dolutegravir pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum


Authors: Colbers A, Bollen P, Freriksen J, Konopnicki D, Weizsäcker K, Hidalgo Tenorio C, Moltó J, Taylor G, Alejandre I,  van Crevel R, Burger D; on behalf of the PANNA network

Published: 26th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, March 4th – 7th, 2019– Seattle. P_758.


Dolutegravir pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum


Authors: Colbers A, Bollen P, Freriksen J, Konopnicki D, Weizsäcker K, Hidalgo Tenorio C, Moltó J, Taylor G, Alejandre I,  van Crevel R, Burger D.

Published: Oral presentation at 9th edition of the International Workshop on HIV & Women, March 2nd-3rd 2019, Seattle


Efavirenz pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and infant washout


Authors: Kreitchmann R, Schalkwijk S, Best B, et al.

Published in: Antivir Ther. 2019;24(2):95-103

Background Limited data exist on efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-positive pregnant women and neonatal washout.

Methods HIV-infected pregnant women receiving 600 mg efavirenz once daily had intensive steady-state 24-h pharmacokinetics profiles during the second trimester (2T),

Evaluating darunavir/ritonavir dosing regimens for HIV-positive pregnant women using semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic modelling


Authors: Schalkwijk S, Ter Heine R, Colbers A, et al.

Published in: J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;30 [Epub ahead of print]

Background Darunavir 800 mg once (q24h) or 600 mg twice (q12h) daily combined with low-dose ritonavir is used to treat HIV-positive pregnant women. Decreased total darunavir exposure (17%-50%) has been reported during pregnancy,

Neonatal ART < 7 days VS 7-28 days reduced time to suppression


Authors: Tagarro A, Dominguez Rodriguez S, Puthanakit T, et al.

Published: Oral presentation at 27th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, March 4th-7th, 2019 – Seattle, WA

Abstract: Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children is associated with better clinical and virological outcome. Few data are available about long-term outcome of children starting ART in the neonatal period.

Minor groove binder modification of widely used TaqMan hydrolysis probe for detection of dengue virus reduces risk of false-negative real-time PCR results for serotype 4


Authors: Gray ER, Heaney J, Ferns RB, Sequeira PC, Nastouli E, Garson JA

Published in: J Virol Methods. 2019;268:17-23

Abstract Dengue is a vector-transmitted viral infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, with over 50 million apparent cases and a fatality rate of 2.5 % of 0.5 million severe cases per annum in recent years.

Field diagnosis and genotyping of chikungunya virus using a dried reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and MinION sequencing


Authors: Hayashida K, Orba Y, Sequeira PC, et al.

Published in: PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(6):e0007480

Abstract Detection and sequencing of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) genome was performed using a combination of a modified reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method and a MinION sequencer. We developed the protocol for drying all the reagents for the RT-LAMP in a single reaction tube.

Use of the WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve classification to define patterns of hospital antibiotic use (AWaRe): an analysis of paediatric survey data from 56 countries.


Authors: Hsia Y, Lee BR, Versporten A, et al; GARPEC and Global-PPS networks.

Published in: Lancet Glob Health. 2019;7(7):e861-e871

Background Improving the quality of hospital antibiotic use is a major goal of WHO’s global action plan to combat antimicrobial resistance. The WHO Essential Medicines List Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification could facilitate simple stewardship interventions that are widely applicable globally.

Hard to study, hard to treat: putting children at the centre of antibiotic research and development


Authors: Balasegaram M, Pécoul B, Gray G, Sharland M, Swaminathan S.

Published in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2019;19(6):573-574

Abstract Newborn babies, infants, and children are substantially affected by antimicrobial resistance. Globally, infectious diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and an estimated 214 000 newborn babies died from drug-resistant bacterial infections in 2015